religion expounded by the Prophet Muhammad on the basis of his reception of divine revelations, which were collected after his death into the Quran. in the tradition of Judaism and Christianity, and sharing much of their lore, this calls on all people to
an adherent of the Islamic religion; a person who "submits" to the will of God
Book composed of divine revelations made to the prophet Muhammad; sacred text of the religion of Islam
a tradition relating the words or deeds of the prophet Muhammad; next to the Quran, the most important basis for Islamic law.
Community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community.
office established in succession to the Prophet Muhammad, to rule the Islamic empire; also the name of that empire.
Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. the majority religion in most Islamic countries.
Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali. This is the state religion of Iran.
a city in Western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
city in western Arabia to which the prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca.
First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs. From their capital at Damascus, they ruled an empire that extended from Spain to India. Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate.
Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, they overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad from 750 to 1258.
under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. They eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria.
first known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries CE. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast.
Muslim religious scholars. from the ninth century onward, the primary interpreters of Islamic law and the social core of Muslim urban societies.
Arab prophet; founder of religion of Islam. grew up an orphan in his uncle's house, married a Quraysh widow, had several daughters, began meditating at night, the angel Gabriel spoke to him.