AP World History Part 3 ? Traditions and Encounters: Parts 3-4 (Chap 13-21)

Why was the Kingdom of Great Zimbabwe significant?

Great Zimbabwe was a religious center with the Shona religion making a most significant contribution.

Unlike many other religions, African religion did not ____.

concern itself with matters of theology.

In societies of sub-Saharan Africa ____.

private ownership of land did not exist

After the eleventh century, the slave trade became increasingly important in Africa because ____.

demand for slaves in foreign markets outstripped the supply.

Like other societies Women largely monopolized public authority, yet women in sub-Saharan Africa generally had more opportunities open such as ____, ____, ____, and ____.

high honor as sources of life, had on occasion a source of power and often influenced public affairs, commonly traded in markets and sometimes organized all-female military units.

Compared with Islam, Christianity in sub-Saharan Africa was

located in a much smaller region

The influence of Islamic faith on African women ____.

did not change the women status much.

Muslim women in the sub-Saharan Africa ____.

Socialized freely with men and continued to appear and work openly.

Age Grades were ____.

groups of people that included all individuals within a given community born within a few years of one another. members of each age-group would perform tasks appropriate for their development

Zanj revolt was ____.

led by a rebel slave Ali ibn-Muhammad, 15,000 slaves revolted for 14 years until it it ceased by Abbasids in 883

Peoples of sub-Saharan Africa developed wide ranges of ____, ____, and ____.

languages, societies, and cultural experiences

Upon the topic of African religion, many African peoples recognized a ____ and ____ as well as ____.

single dominant creator god and lesser deities associated with nature as well as souls of departed ancestors having impact on daily lives.

Diviners were ____.

Intelligent people who understood clearly the networks of political, social, economic, and psychological relationships within their communities

African oracles ____.

identified causes of trouble and prescribed medicine, rituals or sacrifices to eliminate the problem.

What city became prominent centers of Christianity in the Hellenistic age?

Alexandria in Egypt

St. Augustine's home was in ____.

Alexandria in Egypt

Kingdom of Axum was ____.

a kingdom in
located on the Horn of Africa
was tribute based in its centralization of authority. It created a lasting Christian presence in Africa

Ethiopian Christianity ____.

retained basic Christian theology and rituals, reflected the interests of its African devotees. Believed a large host of evil spirits populate the world

Ibn Battuta ____.

travelled around Muslim and African cities and admired or criticized them (I would call him "Marco Polo of Africa")

In November of 1519, a small Spanish army entered ____, the capital city of the Aztec empire in search for ____. (Start of Chapter 20)

Tenochtitlan; gold

Bernal D�az was ____.

a spanish soldier who described Tenochtitlan at it's high point. His companions compared the favorable market city to Rome and Constantinople.

The Mayan Independent city states ruled by?

God-King or
Theocracy

____ linked all Mayan city-states.

Trade

The Mayan city-states traded ____, ____, ____, and ____.

salt, flint, feathers, shells, and honey

What was used as the Mayan currency?

Cacao beans.

What did the Mayans build?

They built temples, pyramids, and places to worship the gods.

Why this periodization? 600 C.E. - 1450 C.E.

After the great classical civilizations of the Foundations fell the world was in a period of recovery while both China and Europe went through periods of decentralization. Migrations became seemingly extricate force in this period of word history. In addi

The Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca is known as the ___.

hajj

The term Islam means ___.

submission

The phrase, "one who has submitted," is the meaning of the term ___.

Muslim

The phrase dar al-Islam means ___.

The house of Islam" and refers to the lands under Islamic rule

In 595, Muhammad married a wealthy widow named ___.

Khadija

Written versions of Muhammad's revelations compiled by devout Muslims were called ___.

The Quran

The turning point in the rise of Islam was ___.

hijra (migration), when Muhammad moved to Medina

The Islamic holy law was known as the ___.

sharia

No religious leader could follow Muhammad, so political authority rested in on the position of the ___.

caliph

After the death of Muhammad, political leadership fell to a caliph by the name of ___.

Abu Bakr

The main split inside Islam was between ___ and ___.

Sunni ("Traditionalists"), Shia ("Party")

The Shia believed that ___.

descendants of Ali (the caliph) were infallible, and divinely appointed to rule the Islamic community

After the assassination of Ali, power fell to ___.

the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty

The victorious Arabic armies of the Umayyad dynasty ___.

appointed members of the elite as governors and administrators of conquered lands, and distributed wealth among them

The Umayyad forces allowed conquered peoples to maintain their own religions, but insisted that they pay a special head tax on those people who did not convert to Islam. This head tax was called the ___.

Jizya

The founder of the Abbasid dynasty was ___.

Abu al-Abbas

The Abbasid dynasty differed from the Umayyad dynasty in that ___.

It was more cosmopolitan than the Umayyad. the rulers didn't show special favor to the Arab military aristocracy. It also was not a conquering dynasty like the Umayyads

The capital of the Abbasid Empire was ___.

Baghdad

The word "ulama" refers to ___.

learned people (literally means "people with religious knowledge")

The reign of Harun al-Rashid ___.

brought the high point of the Abbasid dynasty

During the last 200 years of the Abbasid Empire, it fell under the control of the ___.

Saljuqs

the Abbasid dynasty finally came to an end in 1258, when it was overrun by the ___.

Mongols

Of all the new crops that spread through the Islamic world via trade, which one proved the most important ___.

cotton

What new industry, transmitted to the Islamic world from China, was introduced during the Abbasid period?

paper manufacture

Caravanserais were ___.

inns offering lodging for caravan merchants and care for their animals

Islamic banks honored letters of credit, which could be drawn on the parent bank, known as ___.

sakk

The capital city of al-Andalus was ___.

Cordoba

The Quran, following the example of Muhammad, allowed men to have up to how many wives?

four

How did the conquest of Mesopotamia and Persia influence the role of women in the Islamic world?

they started veiling women

The only definitive and reliable text of the Quran has to be in ___.

Arabic

In an effort to recruit educated students, Islamic leaders often financially supported institutions of higher learning called ___.

madrasas

The Sufis believed that ___.

formal religious teachings were especially meaningful, concerned themselves with fine points of doctrine, and worked to deepen their spiritual awareness.

The Persian al-Ghazali ___.

was the most important Sufis who argued that human reason was too frail to understand the nature of Allah and couldnt explain the mysteries of the world. Only through devotion and guidance from the Quran could humans appreciate Allah

Which factors helped bring unity to the Islamic world?

Ka'ba at Mecca, Abbasid caliphs who encouraged hajj, and pilgrims who made the trip to Mecca spread Islamic values and beliefs all over parts of the Islamic world

The Persian influence on Islam is best seen in ___.

political and cultural ways, administrative techniques and kingships

The author of the Rubaiyat was ___.

Omar Khayyam

The other name for the collection of stories known as the Arabian Nights is ___.

The Thousand and One Nights

The main Indian influence on Islamic thought was in the field of ___,___, and ___.

math, science, and medicine

Arabic numbers actually had their origin in ___,___.

Gupta, India

The Islamic thinker who studied Aristotle and whose thought, in turn, influenced the rise of European scholasticism was ___.

Ibn Rushd

The main influence on the thought of Ibn Rushd was ___.

the development of scholasticism

Ibn Rushd's reliance on natural reason went too far for many Muslims who placed more ___ than ___.

value on the revelations of the Quran than on the fruits of human logic.

Xuanzang

Chinese-Buddhist monk who traveled to India to learn Indian Buddhism

Yang Jian

Founder of Sui Dynasty

Grand Canal

Was a series of canals connecting the north and south, and expanded trade built during Sui Dynasty

Sui Yangdi

Second Sui emperor

Tang Taizong

Second and greatest Tang emperor (Killed his brothers to rule, finished the Grand Canal)

The Middle Kingdom

What tributary lands called China

kowtow

Ritual Prostration

An Lushan

Leader of a rebellion (During Tang Dynasty) that captured Chang'an and Louyang

Uighurs

Nomadic Turks called to rid of An rebellion

Huang Chao

Leader of a rebellion that lasted 10 years and gave wealth to poor

Du Fu

Poet who wrote of Tang wars in "A Song of War Chariots

Song Taizu

Founder of Song Dynasty

The Khitan

Nomadic people from Manchura

The Jurchen

Nomadic people who conquer the Khitan and took capital at Kaifeng

Li Bai

Poet who wrote of Chinese social life during Tang era

Suleiman

Arab merchant who traveled to India+China; described economic/business practices of Tang era

Boddhisatvas

Enlightened Buddhists

Dharma

Explained by "Dao

Nirvana

Explained by "Wuwei

Chan/Zen

Schools of Buddhism popular in China and Japan

Zhu Xi

Most prominent representative of Neo-Confucianism

Li

Form of perfect being

Qi

Material being

Silla Dynasty

Main dynasty of Korea

Kumsong

Capital of Silla Dynasty

Nara Period

First real dynasty of Japan; capital at Nara

Heian Period

Fujihara family, capital at Heian (Kyoto)

Murasaki Shikibu

Author of the Tale of Genji

Taira and Minamoto

Two clans that fight for power after Heian

Shogun

Japanese military governor

Kamakura and Muromachi

Medieval eras of Japan

Samurai

Professional warriors trained in fighting and traditional combat

Buzurg ibn Shariyar

Author of the Book of the Wonders of India, shipmaster from Siraf

Harsha

Temporary unifier of India, establishes a strong kingdom in Northern India

Sind

City in Northwest India conquered by the Abbasids

Mahmud of Ghazni

Leader of the Turks from Afghanistan and raiding expeditions to northern India

The Sultanate of Delhi

Successors of Mahmud create a government centered on the Sultan in northern India called

Cholan Kingdom

One of two kingdoms in southern India, Coromandel coast, focused on collection of revenue from trade profit

Vijayanagar Kindom

Founded by brothers Harihara and Bukka, "city of victory", conversion back to Hinduism by ruling class, Northern Deccan

Dhows

Indian, Arab, and Persian ships

Junks

Chinese and SE Asian ships

Emporia

Warehouses that stored cargo between trade expeditions

Axum Kingdom

In highlands of Ethiopia, replaces Nubia, prominent in Indian Ocean trade

Cosmas Indicopleustes

Christian monk from Egypt, author of Christian Topography, describes India's position in Indian Ocean trade

Shiva

Fertility/Destructive god prominent in southern India

Vishnu

Preserver of World

Shankara

Bhramin philosopher, worshipped Shiva, used Upanishads as base, focus of logical reasoning

Ramanuja

Bhramin philosopher, worshipped Vishnu, used Bhagavad Gita as base, focus on emotional devotion

Bhakti Movement

Focused on closing gap between Hinduism and Islam (and advocated 'love of God' as the easiest way to attain God)

Guru Kabir

Blind weaver; argued Allah, Shiva, and Vishnu were all versions of one god

Funan

Mekong river delta, lots of Indian influence, "raja" king, agricultural

Srivijaya

Sumatra, strong navy and sea trade

Angkor

The Khmers build kingdom at Angkor Thom and Wat in Cambodia region, agricultural

Singosari

Sea trade based, smaller of kingdoms on Java

Majapahit

Sea trade based, larger of kingdoms on Java

Melaka

Islamic kingdom founded by Paramesvara, on Malay peninsula

In 802, what gift did Charlemagne receive from the Abbasid caliph, Harun al-Rashid?

an elephant

What was Charlemagne's elephant called?

Abul-Abbas

Historians use the term caesaropapism to refer to

the system in which the emperor has a mixture of political and religious authority

Constantinople withstood sieges in 674 C.E.-678 C.E. and 717 C.E.-718 C.E. by ___

Muslim forces

Theodora's career before marrying Justinian was as a

striptease artist

Which Germanic tribe played the most important role in establishing the foundations of European development?

Franks

Charlemagne made use of the missi dominici, which means ___.

envoys of the lord ruler

After the collapse of western Roman authority

Germanic tribes established regional kingdoms

The mixture of secular and religious authority that marked Constantine's reign as well as that of the Byzantine emperors is known as

caesaropapism

On Christmas Day 800 C.E., Charlemagne received the Roman imperial crown from

Pope Leo III

Even though Charlemagne spent much of his time traveling around his empire, he did establish a capital at

Aachen

The most important political feature of the Byzantine state was

its tightly centralized rule under a powerful emperor

Charlemagne maintained diplomatic relations with

Harun al-Rashid and the Abbasid empire

Which of the following statements is NOT correct about Charlemagne?

He was mistrustful of intellectual pursuits

Justinian's most important and long-lasting political achievement was

his codification of Roman law

When presented with the imperial crown, Charlemagne

hesitated to call himself emperor out of respect for the Byzantine emperors

A direct challenge to the Byzantine emperor arose in the year 800 when the pope gave an imperial crown to the Frankish King ____.

Charlemagne

Marco Polo spent almost twenty years at the court of

Khubilai Khan

The Delhi sultans

claimed authority over all of northern India

After 1215, the Mongol capital in China was

Khanbaliq

Which of the following did NOT act as a limitation on the development of central Asian societies?

a lack of trading opportunities

The Ghaznavid Turkish leader who raided and plundered India in the eleventh century was

Mahmud

In the city of Merv, the Mongols massacred 750,000 inhabitants but spared

80 craftsmen

The Chaghatai khans ruled

central Asia

Yurts were

tents used by the nomadic Turks

Karakorum was

the central Asian capital of the Mongols

In 1279, Khubilai Khan proclaimed the

Yuan dynasty

Khubilai Khan's military and imperial pursuits

succeeded against the Southern Song but had little success when he tried to conquer Vietnam, Cambodia, Burma, and Japan

The class structure of nomadic societies normally produced

a fluid breakdown into nobles and commoners

Nomadic peoples' military might was based on their

cavalry forces

The environment of central Asia

does not receive enough rain to support large-scale agriculture

In the tenth century, the Turks living near the Abbasid empire began to convert to

Islam

The largest land-based empire of all time was created by the

Mongols

The Turkish-speaking nomadic peoples

never formed a single, homogeneous group

Mahmud of Ghazni's incursion into India in the eleventh century was inspired by

his desire for plunder

At its height, Chinggis Khan's army was as large as

125,000 troops

The nomadic Turkish tribes made use of kumiss, which

was an alcoholic drink fermented from mare's milk

The single biggest obstacle to the rise of a powerful Holy Roman Empire was

an ongoing conflict with the papacy which helped local German princes to consolidate their power while the Emperor was busy in Italy

The phrase usually associated with the medieval social structure is

those who pray, those who fight, and those who work

The Hanseatic League was a trading network that operated in the

North Sea and Baltic Sea

In 962 C.E., Pope John XII presented the imperial crown to

Otto of Saxony

The gradual "Reconquista" of land from the Muslims occurred in

The Iberian Peninsula

In 987, the French nobles chose which of the following men as their king?

Hugh Capet

Hugh Capet was crowned King of France in 987

but it took centuries for the French kings to build a powerful, centralized state

The largest empire ever known in the world by the early fourteenth century was (Wait for it...) ____. (Start of Chapter 18)

the Mongols (?)

Guillaume Boucher was ____.

an
European goldsmith
who lived during the early and middle decades of the thirteenth century, who was one of thousands of foreign born individuals
captured by Mongol warriors
as permanent residents. He was appreciated, and lived a "slave" with prestige

The Mongol capital was ____.

Karakorum,
and was magnificent and luxurious

Slaves in Karakorum enjoyed prestige when they were ____.

skilled craftsmen

Many thirteenth-century roads let to ____.

Karakorum

During the Second and Third centuries C.E., the Huns and other nomadic peoples from central asia launched ____.

the migrations that helped bring down the western Roman empire and later Gupta, India.

Turkish peoples never formed ____ but rather organized themselves as ____.

a single, homogenous group; clans and tribes

Saljuq Turks who lived in Abbasid Persia and took over Byzantine Anatolia during the early eleventh century were ____.

led by sultans who were responsible for most of the governance.

The earliest religion of the Nomadic Turkish peoples revolved around ____.

shamans (religious specialists who possessed supernatural power, communicated with gods and natural spirits

By sixth century, many Nomadic Turks had converted to ____, ____ or ____.

Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, or Manichaeism

The Nomadic Turks developed ____ by the six century.

a written script

In the long term, the Saljuq Turks converted their religion to ____.

Islam

Nomadic peoples of central Asia ____, ____, ____, and ____.

were pastoralists, had outstanding horsemanship, accuracy with bows and arrows, maneuverability as cavalry units, and the ability to retreat quickly.

The Nomadic leaders organized large confederations to subject to a leader of allied tribes called ____.

khan (meaning "ruler")

Turkish Peoples lived mostly on ____, which offered abundant opportunities for trade.

the borders of the Abbasid realm

Tughril Beg ____.

was recognized as caliph as sultan in 1055

Mahmud of Ghazni ____.

was a zealous foe of Buddhism and Hinduism alike and launched frequent raids on shrines, temples and monasteries

During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, Ghaznavid Turks invaded ____.

northern India

For most of history the nomadic Mongols lived on ____.

the high steppe lands of eastern central Asia

The deep loyalty portrayed by the Mongols displayed deep loyalty to kin groups by organized into ____, ____, ____, and frequently allied with ____ peoples.

families, clans, tribes; Turkish

The unifier of the Mongols was ____, born about 167 into a noble family.

Tem�jin

Chinggis Khan ____. (Sometimes spelled Genghis Khan)

Also known as Temujin; he united the Mongol tribes into an unstoppable fighting force; created largest single land the world had ever seen in 1206 C.E

Tem�jin was proclaimed Chingis Khan in 1206 CE by a assembly of Mongol Leaders who recognized his supremacy. "Chingis Khan" means ____.

Universal Ruler

How did Chingis Khan strengthen the Mongol political organization?

He broke up the tribes and force men of fighting age to join the military units without affiliations of tribes. He also personally chose high military and political officials.

Chinggis Khan thought to have said ____. (For some reason this is not in the textbook)

Submit and live. Resist and die

Chinggis Khan never established the Mongol capital and spend most of his time on horseback. His successors built a impressive capital at ____ which symbolized ____.

Karakorum; a source of Mongol authority superior to the clans and the tribes.

With regard to Mongols' military strategies, they ____.

traveled more than 100 kilometers/day to surprise an enemy, shoot arrows behind them on a gallop and from 200 meters, and spare enemies upon surrender without resistance

According to the eyewitness account of Marco Polo, the Mongols' military tactics included ____.

carrying little of food supplies and rely on horse blood if needed.

Chinggis Khan extended Mongol rule to ____, ____, and ____.

Northern China, Afghanistan and Persia

The Mongols turned the ____ capital near modern Beijing under a new name ____. (1215 C.E.)

Jurchen; Khanbaliq ("City of Khan")

Chinggis Khan died in 1277 and his empire was divided amongst ____.

his four sons

After Chinggis Khan's death, the Mongol empire was divided into four regional empires. China, as one of the regional empires, was ruled by ____.

the great khans.

Khubilai Khan was ____.

One of the most talented of Chinggis Khan's descendants, the founder of the Yuan dynasty and known as a promoter of Buddhists, Daoists, Muslims, and Christians under his rule.

Marco Polo lived in Khubilai Khan's court for how many years?

Four

Khubilai Khan extended Mongol rule to all of ____, taking the ____ capital of ____ in 1276 and destroying all resistance for the next 3 years

China; Song; Hangzhou

Khubilai Khan also attempted to take over ____, ____, ____, ____, and ____ in 1270 C.E.-1280 C.E. but was very unsuccessful.

Cambodia, Vietnam, Japan, Java, and Burma

The typhoons near Japan are called 'kamikaze' which means ____.

divine winds

How many Mongol vessels were wrecked by typhoons while traveling to Japan?

4,500

The Mongol group that overran Russia between 1237 C.E. - 1341 C.E. were known as the ____.

Golden Horde

As the Mongols ruled China they ____.

Resisted Asssimulation

During the thirteenth century, long distance trade, travel and communication, and missionary efforts in Eurasia increased thanks to ____.

the Mongols securing trade routes and maintaining a network of relay stations

China and ____ became directly for the first time thanks to the Mongols system of securing trade.

Western Europe

Throughout the Mongol era the great khans were from ____ and the ilkhans were from ____.

China; Persia

Pax Mongolia also known as a period called the "Mongol Peace." This is important because ____. (Not in the textbook but still important)

It reunited two continents and eliminated tariffs.-

How did the Mongols maintain close communications between societies like Korea, Vietnam, India and Western Europe?

The Mongols maintained close communications by the means of diplomatic ambassadors.

The most import allies of the Mongols were the ____.

Uighur Turks

After 1230 the Mongols often took censuses of lands they conquered to ____, ____, and ____.

levy taxes, conscript military forces, to locate talented individuals (like Guillaume Boucher)

The Bubonic Plague also known as the "Black Death" started in ____ and spread along trade routes by ____.

south-western China; Mongols and merchants

The decline of the Mongols was due to ____, ____, ____, and ____.

peasant rebellions, bubonic plague, sharp rise of inflation, and weak administration

The most famous Turkish leader known by his title "lame conqueror" was ____.

Timur (Also known as "Tamerlane" in later english, He was known as a "second Genghis Khan" who united Mongols and led them in a series of conquests. His enemies called him "Prince of Destruction"; he subdued Asia, Persia, Mesopotamia and India.)

Tamerlane's Heirs engaged in long series of bitter conflicts that resulted in ____.

the contraction of Tamerlane's empire which divided into four regions.

Ottomans were ____.

Turkish Peoples who had become the most powerful people on the Balkan peninsula

By 1453, Ottoman Turks captured the Byzantine capital at ____.

Constantinople

What were the similarities between the Mongols and Turks?

The similarities between both the Mongols and Turks included: They did not base their language on Arabic but rather from the Central Asian steppes and both were not skilled administrators, often used local people to rule.

The miraculous oral tradition of sub-Saharan was preserved primarily by whom? (Start of Chapter 19)

Professional singers and giots

What is the name of the story about heroic deed of the lion prince establishing the Mali Empire? (This is who I call "The Original Lion King" Disney never gives credit do they?)

Sundita

The story of Sundiata was about ____.

the heroic deeds of the lion prince in establishing the Mali empire.

Like Eurasia, North African peoples of sub-Saharan Africa organized ____, built ____, and participated in ____.

productive societies; powerful states; large scale of networks of communication and exchange

From the early centuries to 1500 C.E. as well, trade with lands of the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean basins encouraged ____.

African peoples to organized their societies based on the production of products demanded by the consumers in the eastern hemisphere.

Continuous, fast growth of population throughout 800 C.E. to 1000 C.E. in Africa was due to ____ and Bantu migrations introducing ____ and ____.

banana cultivation spreading throughout Africa; agriculture and iron metallurgy.

Early Bantu people were ____.

agriculturalists

What were the common dietary foods consumed by south African peoples?

Yams, sorghum, and millet

Bantu Forest peoples joined the cultivators effectively in a integrated society. Some even retreated to live in the forest and provided products such as ____ in exchange for iron tools.

animal skins

Instead of migrating in search for new areas to cultivate, African peoples ____.

created complex forms of government that allowed them to organize existing societies more efficiently

Societies in Africa did not rely on government based on hierarchies or bureaucracy instead they ____.

governed themselves through family and kinships

Describe a typical kin-based society. (4 Key Points)

Male heads of families presided over village affairs while the most prominent of them acted as chief. A group of villages formed a district level which held focused ethnic loyalties.

Bantu speaking peoples established a vibrant urban society in the middle stretches of the Niger River and by 400 C.E. the settlement ____ was formed.

Jenne-jeno ("Ancient Jenne")

The settlement of Jenne-jeno was a center of ____.

iron production and trade

Although Jenne-jeno declined it inspired the foundations of urban development of other west African cities such as ____.

Timbuktu

The kingdom of Kongo ____.

maintained a royal currency system based on cowries from the Indian Ocean

What caused kin-based societies in Congo region to form small states by the 1000s C.E.? What was the result?

Population pressure and military challenges caused kin-based societies in Congo region to form small states and resulted in the organization of larger, regional governance that handled political and military pressures better than orginal small kingdoms.

The government of Kongo included a ____ who managed military, judicial and financial needs, ____ that administered six provinces whom supervised ____ within districts, and ____ who ruled over local government. (Note the Hierarchy)

king, governors, subordinate officials, chiefs

Although the centralized government of Kongo provided effective administration throughout the fourteenth till the the mid-seventeenth century ____ deteriorated the authority of kings in the government.

Portuguese slave traders

Kin-based societies did not disappear with the emergence of formation but survived until the ____ century.

nineteenth

The arrival of camels in Africa provided ____.

quicker communication across the Sahara possible

Koumbi-Saleh was to the kingdom of Ghana as Nini was to ____.

the Mali empire

The conversion to Islam of rulers of the kingdom of Ghana and the Mali empire stimulated ____ with Muslim merchants.

commercial relations

The significance of the Kingdom of Ghana being the most important commercial site was influenced by ____.

Gold Trade

In exchange from trading trading gold, ivory and slaves Ghana received ____, ____, ____, and ____.

horses, cloth small manufactured wares, and salt (salt was a crucial commodity)

The Ghana kingdom's capital and main trading site was ____.

Koumbi-Saleh

Who was Al-Bakri?

Al-Bakri was an Arab scholar during the height of Ghana's power in 1067 A.D. He described the king's legal system as well as Koumbi-Saleh as a flourishing site with buildings of stone and more than a dozen mosques.

The kings in the kingdoms of Ghana and Takrur both converted to ____ as their religion.

Islam

The lion prince Sundiata built the ____ empire during the first half of the thirteenth century

Mali Empire

What was the capital of Mali?

Niani

From the thirteenth to late fifteenth century, the capital city Niani of Mali controlled and taxed ____.

almost all trade passing through west Africa

As Mali also honored Islam ____.

they provided commodities of protection, lodging and comforts for Muslim merchants

Whose famous pilgrimage to Mecca is remembered for the vast amounts of gold he brought with him?

Mansa Musa

Mansa Musa brought and distributed so much gold that the value of the precious metal dropped ____ %.

25

Mansa Musa took religion seriously after his pilgrimage. He built ____ in trading cities, sent ____, established ____, and brought ____.

He built mosques in the trading cities, sent students to study with special Islamic scholars, established religious schools and brought Arabian teachers (even Muhammad's descendants) to make Islam better known in Mali (I say he went a bit overboard on thi

Within a century of Mansa Musa's reign Mali began to fall. By the late fifteenth century, the ____ had completely overcome Mali.

Songhay empire

Which ethnic group can be found on the East Coast of Africa?

Swahili

Sofala and Mogadishu, Malindi and Kilwa, Zanzibar and Mozambique are all ____.

Swahili city-states

Kilwa was a ____.

City-state on the east coast of Africa that exported gold across the Indian Ocean and participated in large amounts of Indian Ocean trade.

What did Kilwa import and export?

imported silk, textiles, and Chinese porcelain exchanged for gold, silk and ivory

The Mayan society had an advanced culture. Name and describe the three aspects of the cultural developments.

The Mayan society included mathematic zero number system, Created a solar and a sacred calendar, and used a writing system.

The Mayan religion was ____ and had both good and bad gods.

Polytheistic

The Mayan Society had a ____ which included a dot, dash or shell.

Numbering System
(Dot would equal to 1, dash = 5, and shell = 0. It was all addition. Example number 4 would be four dots, number 12 would be 2 dots and 2 dashes. I made a clock that was based off this over summer.)

Mayan Cities had sport contest similar to today's sport: ____.

Soccer
(Although I argue it should be called football the original name by the FA who created it, Moving on: well there were
differences in the Mayan sport: They only used hips and used rubber balls
)

When did the Mayan society decline?

It remains a mystery but the cities were abandoned in the 800s

The Aztec Temples were ____.

principal human sacrifice sites.
(Just a "fun" fact not in the textbook: They almost always tore there beating ? out and then eat the flesh as a part of their diet for meat; children were victims. Parents ate their children. ?? In addition, they followed

Explain the term "Theocracy" in relationship with the Aztec society.

Theocracy means a monarch descended from the gods.
For example Montezuma II was a great Aztec king who was thought to be the "son of the sun itself.

Montezuma II was ____.

the last Aztec emperor in Mexico who was overthrown and killed by a spaniard: Hernando Cort�s (1466-1520)

Give at least five examples of items traded in the Aztec Empire.

gold, silver jewelry, gems, feathers, embroidery, slaves, cotton, cacao, animal skins, maize, beans, vegetables, fruits, poultry, meat, fish, salt, paper, and tools (Any of these are acceptable, in learn press override if you got 5, highlighted in green/c

What two factors of the Aztec society kept the the society going?

Trade which maintained the complex society and sacrificial rituals which pleased the gods and persuaded productivity.

Compare and contrast the Mayan to the Aztec society. (Not all info in textbook)

An intriguing difference between the Mayans and Aztecs is their cultural beliefs, and scientific advances.
The Aztecs were very heavy on human sacrifice,
they did all to please their gods through these rituals, as oppose to the
Mayans just made sacrifices

What epidemic led to the fall of the Aztecs?

The disease from
Europeans.

What traditions did the Mexica society adopt from the Mayans?

adopted traditions such as ball game and calendar from Maya and Olmecs. Two principal gods. Blood letting and sacrificial killing to keep the world going

Mayan social structure was ____.

Rigidly hierarchical
, with public honors and rewards that go to the elite.

Mexica Religion was ____.

polytheistic
, gods feed on human sacrifices

Explain the roles of a Mexica women.

With exception of a few women in temples, all women were married. Women played
no
role in political affairs. Women were prominent in the marketplaces as well as crafts involving embroidery, yet they were homemakers.

Pueblo and Navajo were ____.

agricultural societies in southwest North America.
They topped rivers to irrigate maize crops and cultivated beans, squashes, and sunflowers, and also ate wild plants and small game. They began constructing permanent buildings around 700s.

Iroquois peoples

Settled communities in woodlands east of Mississippi.
They lived in settled communities, and they often surrounded their larger settlements with
wooden palisades which served as defense walls.

Woodlands people began to cultivate ____ and ____ during the early century ce and after ab 800 these cultivated foods made up the bulk of their diets.

maize and beans

By 1000, ____ people had established a distinctive society what is now a upstate New York.

Owasco

By 1400 five Iroquios nations had emerged from Owasco society.
Name all of them. xD

Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca

Iroquois Women were in charge of ____.

villages and longhouses, in which several families live together and supervised cultivation of fields surrounding their settlements.

Men in Iroquois villages took responsibility for ____.

affairs beyond village-hunting, fishing, and war.

Iroquois was built a impressive structures of the woodlands which was ____.

enormous earth mounds

Cahokia was ____.

the largest surviving mound

Because north Mexico had no writing, historic accounts came exclusively from ____.

archeological discoveries

When the Mexica migrated to central Mexico they

they spoke the nahuatl language and adopted the culture

Tezcatlipoca was

a powerful figure giver and taker of life and patron deity of warriors

Tezcatlipoca was also known as

the smoking mirror

Most Aztec human sacrifices were in honor of

Huitzilopochtli

The Aztecs viewed human sacrifice

viewed it as essential to world survival

North American societies

Pueblo and Navajo

The Pueblo and Navajo peoples of the American southwest

tapped river waters to irrigate crops of maize

The five Iroquois nations were the

Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca

Cahokia was

largest surviving mound

The North American Indian societies

trade networks

The kingdom of Chucuito was located in

dominated highlands region around lake titicaca

The capital city of Chimu was

Chanchan

The ruins of Chanchan

population had 50,000 lie close to the modern city of Trujillo, massive brick buildings

The most important ruler in the expansion of the Inca empire was

Pachacuti

The Inca quipu was

mnemonic aid consisted of an array of small cords

The capital of the Inca empire was

Cuzco

Rulers of which group deliberated state policy in the presence of the mummies of their predecessors?

ruling elite

The Inca sun god was

Inti

The cultural and religious traditions of the Australian aborigines

moral dimension, intense concern for immediate environment

The massive stone palace at Nan Madol was located

on pohnpei in the Caroline Islands

The Hawaiian class of high chiefs were known as the

ali'I nui

A marae was

ceremonial precinct and temple structure

Ibn Battuta (Start of Chapter 21)

a Moroccan legal scholar who traveled extensively and recorded is observations

In the five centuries after the year 1000 C.E., the peoples of the eastern hemisphere

traveled and interacted more intensively than ever before

Luxury goods of high value relative to their weight

usually traveled overland on the silk roads

Which of the following cities was NOT a major participant in long-distance trading in the immediate centuries after the year 1000 C.E.?

London

The important trading city of Melaka is located in modern-day

Malaysia

The spread of Mongol control

laid the political foundation for a surge in long-distance trade

Marco Polo's stories

influenced other Europeans to visit China

Khubilai Khan employed Marco Polo in administrative posts

because he did not trust his Chinese subjects

According to Maro Polo's account, he was made governor of the large trading city of

Yangzhou

When Pope Innocent IV sent envoys to invite the Mongols to join in an alliance against the Muslims,

the khans declined and in turn told the Christians to submit to Mongol rule or be destroyed

Rabban Sauma was

a Nestorian Christian priest who served as an envoy for the ilkhans

Rabban Sauma's journey was designed to

invite the Europeans to join the Persian ilkhans agaist the Muslims

The 'sharia'

prescribed religious observances and social relationships based on the Quran

Ibn Battuta was able to travel so extensively because

his religious and legal training allowed him to serve as qadi

Cotton was introduced to west Africa by the

Muslims

What was NOT a product that had a new impact during this period of increasing interaction?

silk

Gunpowder had its origins in

China

The outbreak of the bubonic plague in the 14th century began in

China

As a result of the bubonic plague, the population of Europe dropped from 79 million in 1300 to around _______ in 1400.

60 million

Which one of the following was NOT a common result of the bubonic plague?

a temporary decrease in workers' wages

The Ming dynasty was founded in 1368 by

Hongwu

Hongwu's philosophy for ruling China was to

return to the model of traditional Chinese dynasties

Which of the following was NOT a hallmark of Hongwu's rule?

the move to a more decentralized governmental form

The "Yongle Encyclopedia

represented the Ming rulers' interest in supporting native Chinese cultural traditions

The rise of the pwerful states in Europe in the 15th centurywas dependent on

the combination of new taxes and large standings armies

The marriage of Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castile

led to the creation of the Spanish state

The 'reconquista' was

the Spanish Catholic attempt to win Spain from Islamic control

Central to Renaissance thought was an

appreciation for the art and thought of the middle ages

The dome of the cathedral of Florence was designed by

Brunelleschi

Which of the following is NOT representative of Renaissance art?

introduction of abstract painting as an artistic genre

The most important of the humanistic thinkers was

Erasmus

Humanist moral philosophers believed that

people could lead morally virtuous lives while participating in the world

Zheng He was

the Chinese admiral who made seven journeys of exploration

The nation that led the way in early European exploration was

Portugal

The Portuguese mariner who reached India in 1498 was

Vasco da Gama