Pars compacta

produces dopamine that sends signals

pars reticular

produces GABA (gamma aminio butyric acid)

- voluntary control
- procedural learning
- habit learning
- eye movement
- cognition
- emotion

BG structures are associated with a variety of functions including (6)

striatum and cortex

all input to the BG arrives via __ and __

globus pallidus, substancia nigra

output leaves the BG via __ and __


neurotransmitter for the direct pathway to increase motor output is ___


neurotransmitter for the indirect pathway that will decrease motor output is ___

athetosis: writhing or twisting movement
- caused by prenatal hypoxia of the BG or neonatal jaundice
- early huntington's disease

movement disorders associated with BG- INDIRECT

1. bradykinesia
2. plus ONE of the following: rigidity, tremor, gait and balance disorder
3. reaction to dopamine drugs

hallmark 3 symptoms of diagnosis PD

- visuopereptive and vestibular
-stooped posture

impairements affecting balance

- orthostatis hypertension
- cardiac arrythmias
- airway dysfunction-aspiration pneumonitis
- venous pooling in LE

cardiac complications of PD

Lewy bodies are found in both the cerebral ccortexortes and the substancia nigra

what makes Lewy body dementia unique from parkinson's dementia

pD Stage 1

- mild disabilities
- more inconvienent that disabling
- pt usually able to continue regular work and acitivites with minimal acommidation

PD stage 2

- bilateral symptoms
-both posture and gait are affected
- shuffling, festinating gait
- minimal disability

PD stage 3

- moderately servere generalized dysfunction
-significant slowness
- equilibrium impairments in standing and walking

stage 4

- significant dsiability requiring assistane with ADLs
- increased bradykinesia
- increased postural instability
- rigidity
-festinating gait

stage 5

- complete dependence for ADLs
- may not be able to stand or with w/o assitance
- difficulty swollowing
- communication deficit
- 20% have demenia

multiple systems atrophy (MSA)

- Symptoms include ataxia and ANS dysfunction (BP and bladder stuff)
- people with this typically respond poorly to PD meds
- no treatments or tests for it
- encompassed several neurodegenerative disorders

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

Corticobasal syndrome

Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB)

Drug-induced parkinsonism

Vascular Parkinsonism

top 10 freezing tips

STOMP: task specific training using motor planning approach

- loudness (amplitude)
- communcation
- breathe support
- swallowing (dsyphagia)

LSVT LOUD addresses