Chapter 19 vocab

adjuvant chemotherapy

Drugs are given after primary therapy (surgery or radiation). Adi means to assist. Chemotherapeutic

alkylating agents

Chemotherapeutic synthetic drugs that cause crosslinks and breakei DNA to stop cells from dividing.


Loss of differentiation of cells; reversion to a more primitive cell


Chemotherapeutic drugs found in bacteria and fungi which caused breaks in DNA strands to inhibit cell division

Anti metabolics

Chemotherapeutic agents that block the synthesis of DNA components nucleotides and prevent cells from dividing


Chemotherapeutic chemicals that block the function of a protein necessary for mitosis


Programmed cell death

Begin tumor

Non-cancerous growth neoplasm


Radio therapy that uses insertion of steel containers into the body cavities or radioactive seeds directly into the tumor


Agents that cause cancer a.k.a. chemicals drugs radiation and viruses


a malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue


treatment of cancer with drugs

Combination chemotherapy

use of several chemotherapeutic agents together for the treatment of tumors


loss of differentiation of cells; reversion to a more primitive, embryonic cell type; anaplasia or undifferentiation

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

Genetic material within the nucleus of a cell; controls cell division and protein synthesis


Specialization of cells

Electron beams

low-energy beams of radiation for treatment of skin or surface tumors


Surrounded by a capsule; benign tumors are this

External beam irradiation

radiation is applied to a tumor from a source outside the body


Dimensions of the area of the body undergoing irradiation


giving radiation in small, repeated doses

Genetic screening

family members are tested to determine whether they have inherited a cancer-causing gene

Grading of tumors

evaluating the degree of maturity of tumor cells or degree of differentiation

Gray (Gy)

unit of absorbed radiation dose

gross description of tumors

visual appearance of tumors to the naked eye: cystic, fungating, inflammatory, medullary, necrotic, polypoid, ulcerating, or verrucous


cancer treatment using immune cells and antibodies to kill tumor cells


extending beyond normal tissue boundaries into adjacent tissues


having the ability to enter and destroy surrounding tissue


exposure to any form of radiant energy such as light, heat, or x-rays

Linear accelerator

large electronic device that produces high-energy x-ray beams for treatment of deep-seated tumors

Malignant tumors

Tumors having the characteristics of continuous growth, invasive ness , metastasis


embryonic connective tissue


Spread of a malignant tumor to a secondary site literally beyond control

Microscopic description of tumors

appearance of tumors when viewed under a microscope


Replication of cells; a stage in a cells lifecycle involving the production of two identical cells from a parent cell

Mixed tissue tumors

tumors composed of different types of tissue


method of treatment, such as surgery, chemotherapy, or irradiation

molecularly targeted therapy

use of drugs to attack specific targets (mutations) that drive cancer cell growth


Condition of being unwell or deficient in normal function


Containing mucus (a thick whitish secretion).


Change in the genetic material in DNA of a cell; may be caused by chemicals radiation or viruses or may occur spontaneously

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy

drugs are given before primary therapy (surgery or radiation) to reduce the size of a tumor


new growth


Unit of DNA gene composed of a sugar phosphate and a base; the sequence or arrangement of is a gene in the genetic code


Region of DNA in tumor cells or in viruses that cause cancer


relieving or soothing the symptoms of a disease or disorder without effecting a cure


Possessing a stem or stalk

Proton therapy

Subatomic positively charged particles produced by a she cyclotron deposit a dose of radiation in tightly focus points in the body


Detailed plan for treatment of an illness

photon therapy

radiation therapy using energy in the form of x-rays or gamma rays


Energy carried by a stream of particles

Radiocurable tumor

tumor that can be completely eradicated by radiation therapy

radio resistant tumor

tumor that requires large doses of radiation to be destroyed but will stand through many

Radio sensitive tumor

tumor in which radiation can cause the death of cells without serious damage to surrounding tissue


drugs that increase the sensitivity of tumors to x-rays


Treatment of tumors using doses of radiation radiation oncology


Recurrence of tumor after treatment


the temporary, partial, or complete disappearance of the symptoms of a disease without having achieved a cure

ribonucleic acid (RNA)

Seller substance that represents a copy of DNA and directs the formation of new proteins inside cell


Cancerous tumor derive from connective or flesh tissue


Having the appearance of a thin watery fluid


Having no stem characteristic of some polypoid tumors


Study using CT scan or MRI to map the area to receive treatment before radio therapy is given

Solid tumor

tumor composed of a mass of cells

Staging of tumors

System of evaluating the extent of spread of tumors. An example is the TNM (tumor-node-metastasis) system.

Stereotactic radiosurgery

Technique in which a single large dose of radiation is delivered under precise 3D guidance to destroy vascular abnormalities and small brain tumors.

Surgical procedures to treat cancer

methods of removing cancerous tissue: cryosurgery, cauterization, en bloc resection, excisional biopsy, exenteration, fulguration, incisional biopsy

Viral oncogenes

pieces of DNA from viruses that infect a normal cell and cause it to become malignant


Infectious agent that reproduces by entering a host and using the host genetic material to make copies of itself

Tumors (neoplasms)

new growths that arise from normal tissue; either malignant or benign