Oncology NCLEX practice questions copy

1. A male client has an abnormal result on a Papanicolaou test. After admitting, he read his chart while the nurse was out of the room, the client asks what dysplasia means. Which definition should the nurse provide?
a. Presence of completely undifferenti

d. Alteration in the size, shape, and organization of differentiated cells
Anaplasia presence of completely undifferentiated tumor cells that don't resemble cells of the tissues of their origin.
Hyperplasia an increase in number of normal cells in a norma

4. A female client with cancer is scheduled for radiation therapy. The nurse knows that radiation at any treatment site may cause a certain adverse effect. Therefore, the nurse should prepare the client to expect:
a. hair loss.
b. stomatitis.
c. fatigue.

c. fatigue.
Radiation therapy may cause fatigue, skin toxicities, and anorexia regardless of the treatment site. Hair loss, stomatitis, and vomiting are site-specific, not generalized, adverse effects of radiation therapy.

5. Nurse April is teaching a client who suspects that she has a lump in her breast. The nurse instructs the client that a diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed by:
a. breast self-examination.
b. mammography.
c. fine needle aspiration.
d. chest X-ray.

c. fine needle aspiration.
Fine needle aspiration and biopsy provide cells for histologic examination to confirm a diagnosis of cancer.

7. A female client is receiving chemotherapy to treat breast cancer. Which assessment finding indicates a fluid and electrolyte imbalance induced by chemotherapy?
a. Urine output of 400 ml in 8 hours
b. Serum potassium level of 3.6 mEq/L
c. Blood pressure

d. Dry oral mucous membranes and cracked lips
Chemotherapy commonly causes nausea and vomiting, which may lead to fluid and electrolyte imbalances.
Signs of fluid loss include dry oral mucous membranes, cracked lips, decreased urine output (less than 40 m

8. Nurse April is teaching a group of women to perform breast self-examination. The nurse should explain that the purpose of performing the examination is to discover:
a. cancerous lumps.
b. areas of thickness or fullness.
c. changes from previous self-ex

c. changes from previous self-examinations.

9. A client, age 41, visits the gynecologist. After examining her, the physician suspects cervical cancer. The nurse reviews the client's history for risk factors for this disease. Which history finding is a risk factor for cervical cancer?
a. Onset of sp

d. Human papillomavirus infection at age 32
Other risk factors - frequent sexual intercourse before age 16, multiple sex partners, and multiple pregnancies.

11. The nurse is interviewing a male client about his past medical history. Which preexisting condition may lead the nurse to suspect that a client has colorectal cancer?
a. Duodenal ulcers
b. Hemorrhoids
c. Weight gain
d. Polyps

d. Polyps
Weight loss is an indication of colorectal cancer.

12. Nurse Amy is speaking to a group of women about early detection of breast cancer. The average age of the women in the group is 47. Following the American Cancer Society guidelines, the nurse should recommend that the women:
a. perform breast self-exam

b. have a mammogram annually.
"Women older than age 40 should have a mammogram annually

14. For a female client newly diagnosed with radiation-induced thrombocytopenia, the nurse should include which intervention in the plan of care?
a. Administering aspirin if the temperature exceeds 102� F (38.8� C)
b. Inspecting the skin for petechiae onc

b. Inspecting the skin for petechiae once every shift
Thrombocytopenia impairs blood clotting, the nurse should inspect the client regularly for signs of bleeding, such as petechiae, purpura, epistaxis, and bleeding gums.
The nurse should avoid administer

21. A 35 years old client has been receiving chemotherapy to treat cancer. Which assessment finding suggests that the client has developed stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth)?
a. White, cottage cheese-like patches on the tongue
b. Yellow tooth discolor

c. Red, open sores on the oral mucosa

22. During chemotherapy, an oncology client has a nursing diagnosis of impaired oral mucous membrane related to decreased nutrition and immunosuppression secondary to the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy. Which nursing intervention is most likely to decr

b. Providing a solution of hydrogen peroxide and water for use as a mouth rinse
To decrease the pain of stomatitis, the nurse should provide a solution of hydrogen peroxide and water for the client to use as a mouth rinse. (Commercially prepared mouthwash

28. A 34-year-old female client is requesting information about mammograms and breast cancer. She isn't considered at high risk for breast cancer. What should the nurse tell this client?
a. She should have had a baseline mammogram before age 30.
b. She sh

a. She should have had a baseline mammogram before age 30.
A low-fat diet has been found to decrease a woman's risk of breast cancer. A baseline mammogram should be done between ages 30 and 40.
Monthly breast self-examinations should be done between days

1. Which of the following positions is the one of choice for palpating tissues during breast self-examination?
A. Sitting in a chair with a pillow under both shoulders to elevate the chest.
B. Standing facing a mirror.
C. Flat on the back with a pillow un

D. Flat on the back with a pillow under the shoulder of the side being examined

Select the nursing interventions that will implemented in the care of a child with leukemia who is at risk for infection.
Select All That Apply
A. Maintain the child in a private room
B. Apply firm pressure to a needlestick area for at least 10 minutes

A. Maintain the child in a private room
D. Ensure that anyone entering the child's room wears a mask
E. Use strict aseptic technique for all procedures
F. Frequent and thorough handwashing

The nurse caring for a child with leukemia should place priority on:
A. Preventing injury.
B. Monitoring the child's platelet count.
C. Monitoring the child's temperature.
D. Encouraging increased fluid intake.

C. Monitoring the child's temperature.

A client who is newly diagnosed with multiple myeloma asks the physician what treatment will be necessary. The nurse should expect the physician to reply:
A. "Human leukocyte interferon therapy."
B. "Radiotherapy on an outpatient basis."
C. "Surgery to re

D. "Chemotherapy employing a combination of drugs."
Multiple myeloma is a diffuse disorder of the bone and no single lesion can be removed.

Upon admission of a four-year-old child to rule out leukemia, the parents ask the nurse when they will know the diagnosis. The nurse's response is based on the knowledge that the results of which of the following confirms leukemia?
A. Bone marrow aspirati

A. Bone marrow aspiration

The nurse analyzes the laboratory values of a child with leukemia who is receiving chemotherapy. The nurse notes that the platelet count is 20,000 cells/�l. Based on this laboratory result, which intervention will the nurse document in the plan of care?

D. Use a soft small toothbrush for mouth care.
If a child is severely thrombocytopenic and has a platelet count less than 20,000 cells/�l, precautions need to be taken because of the increased risk of bleeding. The precautions include limiting activity th

The most common symptom associated with bladder cancer is:
A. Painless hematuria.
B. Decreasing urine output.
C. Burning on urination.
D. Frequent infections.

A. Painless hematuria.

A client with carcinoma of the tonsils and enlarged lymph glands in the neck is receiving chemotherapy following surgery. The nurse, recognizing the effects of therapy, should check the client's laboratory reports, especially the:
A. Platelet count
B. Red

C. White blood cell count

After a mastectomy for breast cancer, the nurse teaches the client how to avoid the development of lymphedema. Which of the following instructions would be included?
A. Applying an elastic bandage to the affected extremity.
B. Limiting range-of-motion exe

C. Elevating the affected arm on a pillow.
The client should be taught to elevate the affected arm on a pillow to promote venous return and lymphatic drainage of the area

A nurse is performing an assessment on a 10-year-old child suspected of having Hodgkin's disease. The nurse understands that which data are most characteristic of this disease?
A. Painful, enlarged inguinal lymph nodes
B. Fever and malaise
C. Painless, fi

C. Painless, firm, movable adenopathy in the cervical area

Which of the following may a parent notice in a child with early retinoblastoma?
A. White appearing in the lens
B. Protruding eyes
C. Blindness
D. Inflamed conjunctiva

A. White appearing in the lens

The nurse is developing a teaching plan for a client who has just been diagnosed with breast cancer. The nurse should include information about which medication?
A. acetaminophen (Tylenol)
B. dopamine (Intropin)
C. tamoxifen (Nolvadex)
D. progesterone (Ge

C. tamoxifen (Nolvadex)
Tamoxifen is an estrogen blocker used to treat both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer and to prevent breast cancer in certain women who are at high risk.

The laboratory results of a client following chemotherapy for cancer indicate bone marrow depression. The nurse should encourage the client to:
A. Use an electric razor when shaving
B. Drink citrus juices frequently for nourishment
C. Sleep with the head

A. Use an electric razor when shaving
Suppression of bone marrow increases bleeding susceptibility associated with decreased platelets.

When teaching a client about the diet following a Whipple procedure performed for cancer of the pancreas, the nurse should include the statement:
A. "There are no dietary restrictions; you may eat what you desire."
B. "Your diet should be low in calories

D. "Low-fat meals should be eaten because of interference with your fat digestion mechanism.

When developing a plan of care that includes interventions aimed at preventing complications of a low platelet count in a child with leukemia, which of the following is most appropriate?
A. Consulting with a physician about the use of a stool softener.

A. Consulting with a physician about the use of a stool softener.

Risk factors for the development of breast cancer include:
A. Early menopause (before age 40).
B. Early onset of menstruation.
C. Having had more than two children.
D. Breast-feeding.

B. Early onset of menstruation.
A family history of breast cancer, early onset of menstruation, delayed onset of menopause, and childlessness all appear to increase a woman's risk of breast cancer.

Which of the following would the nurse teach the mother of a child with leukemia who has an absolute neutrophil count of 900/mm�?
A. The child should wear gloves when in contact with others.
B. The child should stay away from crowds of people.
C. Anyone i

B. The child should stay away from crowds of people.

The nurse understands that that Hodgkin's disease is suspected when a client presents with a painless, swollen lymph node. Hodgkin's disease typically affects people in which age group?
A. Children (ages 6 to 12 years).
B. Teenagers (ages 13 to 20 years).

C. Young adults (ages 21 to 40 years).

Which of the following is an early sign of laryngeal cancer?
A. Difficulty swallowing.
B. Persistent mild hoarseness.
C. Chronic foul breath.
D. Nagging unproductive cough.

B. Persistent mild hoarseness.

The client undergoing whole-body radiation for Hodgkin's disease may have destruction of bone marrow, making it unable to function normally. As a result of this, the nurse would expect the client to develop:
A. Increased blood viscosity
B. Increased tende

C. Decreased number of erythrocytes
Depression of the bone marrow interferes with hemopoiesis and results in anemia

An 8-year-old child, admitted to the hospital for intrathecal methotrexate chemotherapy, is prescribed allopurinol (Zyloprim) and asks the nurse why this medication has to be taken. The nurse's best response would be:
A. "Because this pill helps the other

A. "Because this pill helps the other medicines get rid of the things making you sick.

A 52-year-old female tells the nurse that she has found a painless lump in her right breast during her monthly self-examination. Which assessment finding would strongly suggest that this client's lump is cancerous?
A. Eversion of the right nipple and a mo

B. Nonmobile mass with irregular edges