Phrenology (Franz Gall)
the detailed study of the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities.
Extripation (ablation) (Pierre Flourens)
the idea of removing areas of the brain and observe the complications
Functionalism (William James)
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
Broca's area (Paul Broca)
Controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
Herman von Helmholtz
first to measure the speed of nerve impulses
Sir Charles Sherrington
first inferred the existence of synapses
Central Nervous System (CNS)
consists of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
somatic nervous system
A subdivision of the peripheral nervous system. Enables voluntary actions to be undertaken due to its control of skeletal muscles
autnomic nervous system
the involuntary movements. comprised of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
sympathetic nervous system
a set of nerves that prepares the body for action in challenging or threatening situations
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
An area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord (Pons, cerebellum, Medulla Oblongata)
A brain structure that relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain. Sleep and arousal
Part of the brainstem that controls vital life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion.
A small part of the brain above the pons that integrates sensory information and relays it upward.
The largest and most complicated region of the brain, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebrum.
receives visual sensory input
The study of functions and behaviors associated with specific regions of the brain.
Graphical record of brain-wave activity obtained through electrodes placed on the scalp and forehead
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
an imaging technique used to examine changes in the activity of the working human brain by measuring changes in the blood's oxygen levels
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
computed tomography (CT)
brain-imaging method using computer-controlled X-rays of the brain
regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)
detects broad patterns of neural activity based on increased blood flow to different parts of the brain
neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives
- Relay station for sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex
A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
lateral hypothalamus (LH)
The part of the hypothalamus that produces hunger signals
ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)
the part of the hypothalamus that can cause one to stop eating
controls sexual behavior
ADH and oxytocin
A limbic system structure involved in memory and emotion, particularly fear and aggression.
a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage
Septal Nuclei (limbic system)
- one of primary pleasure centres in the brain
an inability to form new memories
an inability to retrieve information from one's past
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving
the two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain
Large folds of tissue covering the surface of the cerebrum
~shallow grooves separating the gyri
~ Divides the cerebral hemispheres into lobes
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
perform simple perceptual and motor tasks
primary motor cortex
the section of the frontal lobe responsible for voluntary movement - located on the precentral gyrus
divides frontal and parietal lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations - located on postcentral gyrus
The visual processing areas of cortex in the occipital and temporal lobes.
sense of hearing, smell, memory, thought, and judgment
controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
same side control
each hemisphere of the brain controls the opposite side of the body
Dominant hemisphere (Left)
language, logic, and math skills
Usually the right. Associated with intuition, creativity, music cognition, and spatial processing
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
neurotransmitter associated with voluntary muscle control, attention, and arousal
A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and learning and the brain's pleasure and reward system.
A neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep, arousal, and mood.
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
A major inhibitory neurotransmitter. Undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia.
Neurotransmitter secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress. Also known as adrenaline.
A neurotransmitter involved in arousal, as well as in learning and mood regulation
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.
secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
outer section of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones
A group of hormones, including cortisol, released by the adrenal glands at times of stress
stress hormone released by the adrenal cortex
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
Female sex hormone
ovaries and testes
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
hypophyseal portal system
a blood vessel system that directly connects the hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary
innate behavior (instinct)
Genetically determined behavior that is inherited rather than learned; rigidly patterned throughout a species.
a behavior that has been learned from experience or observation
heritable characteristic that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in an environment
the theory that organisms better suited to their environment are more likely to survive
Nature vs. Nurture
name for a controversy in which it is debated whether genetics or environment is responsible for driving behavior
researchers assess hereditary influence by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble one another on a specific trait
assess hereditary influence by examining the resemblance between adopted children and both their biological and their adoptive parents
identical twins formed when one zygote splits into two separate masses of cells, each of which develops into a separate embryo
twins who are produced when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time