Pharynx Divisions

nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

What bones is the nasopharynx attached to?

pterygoid, palatine, hyoid bones

What cartilages is the nasopharynx attached to?

laryngeal, cricoid, and thyroid cartilages

What is the intrinsic musculature of the pharynx?

1. palatopharyngeus
2. tensor veli palatini
3. levator veli palatini
4. palatinus

What forms the palatine aponeurosis?

� Palatine aponeurosis is formed by expansion of the tendon of the tensor veli palatini muscle

What forms the palatopharyngeal arch?

Muscle fibers of the palatinus muscle course beneath the nasopharyngeal mucosa and extend along the pillars of the soft palate to unite in the caudal part of the nasopharynx to form the palatopharyngeal arch

Soft palate position is determined by

tensor veli palatini, levator veli palatini, palatinus, and palatopharyngeus muscles

Which intrinsic muscle is innervated by the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve?

tensor veli palatini

The intrinsic muscles of the pharynx (excluding tvp) are innervated by the

pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve

What is the origin and insertion of the levator veli palatini muscle?

arises from the muscular process of the petrous part of the temporal bone and the lateral lamina of the auditory tube and passes along the lateral wall of the nasopharynx to insert within the soft palate dorsal to the glandular layer

What is the role of the levator veli palatini muscle?

1. elevates the soft palate during swallowing
2. closes the nasopharynx
3. facilitates oral ventilation in nonobligate nasal breathers.

what is the origin and insertion of the palatinus muscle?

paired fusiform muscle that originates at the caudal aspect of the palatine aponeurosis and courses through the middle of the soft palate, just beneath the nasal mucosa, to ramify in the caudal free margin of the soft palate

What is the origin and insertion of the palatopharyngeus muscle?

arises from the palatine aponeurosis (lateral to the palatinus muscle attachment) and from the palatine and pterygoid bones.

What is the role of the palatinus and palatopharyngeus muscles?

The palatinus and palatopharyngeus muscles shorten the soft palate and depress it toward the tongue.

What are the extrinsic muscles of the pharynx?

�paired geniohyoideus, thyrohyoideus, genioglossus, hyoglossus, hyoepiglotticus, styloglossus, sternohyoideus, and sternothyroideus muscles.

genioglossus muscle origin and attachment

a fan-shaped extrinsic tongue muscle that originates within the median plane of the tongue and attaches to the oral surface of the mandible, caudal to the symphysis

What is the function of the genioglossus?

protracts the tongue and pulls the basihyoid bone rostrally. In horses, this activity may be reproduced by the tongue tie, which has been shown to be useful in treatment of DDSP in a case-control study

What is the origin and insertion of the geniohyoideus

Rostrohyoid bone. The geniohyoideus is a rostrohyoid muscle that originates, in conjunction with the aforementioned genioglossus, on the medial surface of the mandible near the symphysis and inserts on the basihyoid bone. Its action draws the hyoid appara

What is the origin and insertion of the styloglossus?

muscle lies on the lateral aspect of the tongue, originates on the lateral aspect of the stylohyoid bone and inserts on the tip of the tongue. Its function is retraction of the tongue (i.e., retruder).

What is the origin and insertion of the hyoglossus?

located medial to the styloglossus muscle, originates on the hyoid bones (lingual process, stylohyoid and thyrohyoid bone), and inserts on the median plane of the dorsum of the tongue.

What is the origin and insertion of the sternohyoideus and sternothyroideus?

Caudohyoid muscles that originate on the sternal manubrium and extend cranially.
The sternothyroideus muscle inserts on the caudolateral aspect of the thyroid cartilage.
The sternohyoideus muscle inserts on the basihyoid bone and lingual process of the hy

What is the function of the sternohyoideus and sternothyroideus?

caudal traction on the hyoid apparatus and larynx. Net displacement of basihyoid bone.
Increases angle of ceratohcyoid-stylohyoid joint, increasing dorsoventral dimension of the nasopharynx causing expansion and tightening.

What is the insertion of the hyoepiglotticus?

which attaches to the hyoid bone at the base of the epiglottis

Function of hyoepiglotticus

during its contraction, pulls the epiglottis ventrad toward the base of the tongue, thereby increasing the ventral dimension of the rima glottidis

Thyrohyoideus muscle

extends from the lateral lamina of the thyroid cartilage to the caudal aspect of the thyrohyoid bone was thought to move the larynx rostrad only during deglutition.

What is the purpose of the thyrohyoideus muscle?

enhance soft palate stability during exercise by moving the larynx rostrad so the thyroid cartilage rests more dorsal and rostral in relation to the basihyoid

What is the main innervation of the geniohyoideus, genioglossus, styloglossus, hyoglossus, and hyoepigloticus muscles?

Hypoglossal nerve (note that only medial branch of genioglossus and lateral branch of hyoglossus.

What other nerve supplies the sternohyoideus and sternothyroideus?

1st and 2nd cervical nerves

Innervation of thyrohyoideus

�Although it has been reported that the thyrohyoid branch of the hypoglossal nerve is responsible for innervation of the thyrohyoideus muscle, one investigation suggests that the pharyngeal branch of the vagus is responsible for this innervation (in rabbi

Blood supply to pharynx and sensory innervation to pharynx

Common and external carotid arteries and the linguofacial trunk.
Venous drainage is provided by the accompanying veins. Lymph vessels drain toward the retropharyngeal and cranial cervical lymph nodes.
The trigeminal, vagus, and glossopharyngeal nerves pro