#### Tactical Tools (Corporal's Course)

A map is defined as

a graphic representation of a portion of the Earth's surface drawn to scale, as seen from above. It uses colors, symbols, and labels to represent features found on the ground.
-The ideal representation would be realized if every feature of the area being mapped could be shown in true shape.
-The purpose of a map is to provide information on the existence, location, and distance between ground features, such as populated places and routes of travel and communication. It also indicates variations in terrain, heights of natural features, and the extent of vegetation cover.
-All operations conducted require maps; however, the finest maps available are worthless unless the map user knows how to read them.

Marginal Information

A map is considered equipment. To use it properly, you should read the instructions.
These instructions on the outer edges of the map are called marginal information.
All maps are different so examine the marginal information on each map carefully.

Marginal Information (Top Margin 1-6)

The top margin of the map helps you to identify the specific area covered as well as the age and scale of the map.

1 Sheet Name (Top Margin)

The sheet name is found in bold print at the center of the top and in the lower left area of the map margin. A map is generally named for the settlement contained within the area covered by the sheet or for the largest natural feature located within the area at the time the map was drawn.

2 Sheet Number (Top Margin)

The sheet number is bolded in the upper right and lower left areas of the margin and in the center box of the adjoining sheets diagram, which is found in the lower right margin.
It is used as a reference number to link specific maps to overlays, operations orders, and plans.
For maps at 1:100,000 scale and larger, sheet numbers are based on an arbitrary system that makes possible the ready orientation of maps at scales of 1:100,000, 1:50,000, and 1:25,000.

3 Series Name (Top Margin)

The map series name is found in the same bold print as the sheet number in the upper left corner of the margin.
The name given to the series is generally that of a major political subdivision, such as a state within the United States or a European nation.
A map series usually includes a group of similar maps at the same scale and on the same sheet lines or format designed to cover a particular geographic area.
It may also be a group of maps that serve a common purpose, such as the military city maps.

4 Scale (Top Margin)

The scale is found both in the upper left margin after the series name and in the center of the lower margin.
The scale note is a representative fraction that gives the ratio of a map distance to the corresponding distance on the Earth's surface.
For example, the scale note 1:50,000 indicates that one unit of measure on the map equals 50,000 units of the same measure on the ground.

5 Series Number (Top Margin)

The series number is found in both the upper right margin and the lower left margin. It is a sequence reference expressed either as a four-digit numeral (1125) or as a letter, followed by a three- or four-digit numeral (M661; T7110).

6 Edition Number (Top Margin)

The edition number is found bolded in the upper right area of the top margin and the lower left area of the bottom margin.
Editions are numbered consecutively; therefore, if you have more than one edition, the highest numbered sheet is the most recent.
This date is important when determining how accurately the map data might be expected to match what you will encounter on the ground.

Marginal Information (Bottom Margin 7-14)

This portion of the map includes information that helps to interpret the map. It provides correlation between actual terrain and man-made features and the map's topographic symbols. Some information found in the bottom margin is repeated from the top margin.

7 Boundaries (Bottom Margin)

The index to boundaries diagram appears in the lower or right margin of all sheets.
This diagram, which is a miniature of the map, shows the boundaries that occur within the map area, such as county lines and state boundaries.

Maps at all standard scales contain a diagram that illustrates the adjoining sheets. The diagram usually contains nine rectangles, but the number may vary depending on the locations of the adjoining sheets. All represented sheets are identified by their sheet numbers. Sheets of an adjoining series of the same scale, whether published or planned, are represented by dashed lines. The series number of the adjoining series is indicated along the appropriate side of the division line between the series.

9 Elevation Guide (Bottom Margin)

This is normally found in the lower right margin.
It is a miniature characterization of the terrain shown.
The terrain is represented by bands of elevation, spot elevations, and major drainage features.
The elevation guide provides the map reader with a means of rapid recognition of major landforms.

10 Declination Diagram (Bottom Margin)

This is located in the lower margin of large-scale maps and indicates the angular relationships of true north, grid north, and magnetic north.
On maps at 1:250,000 scale, this information is expressed as a note in the lower margin.
In new maps, there is a note indicating the conversion of azimuths from grid to magnetic and from magnetic to grid next to the declination diagram.

11 Bar Scale (Bottom Margin)

These are located in the center of the lower margin.
They are rulers used to convert map distance to ground distance.
Maps have three or more bar scales, each in a different unit of measure.
Care should be exercised when using the scales, especially in the selection of the unit of measure that is needed.

12 Contour Interval Note (Bottom Margin)

This note is found in the center of the lower margin normally below the bar scales.
It states the vertical distance between adjacent contour lines of the map.
When supplementary contours are used, the interval is indicated.
In new maps, the contour interval is given in meters instead of feet.

13 Legend (Bottom Margin)

The legend is located in the lower left margin.
It illustrates and identifies the topographic symbols used to depict some of the more prominent features on the map.
The symbols are not the same on every map.
Always refer to the legend to avoid errors when reading a map.

14 Grid Reference Box (Bottom Margin)

Grid Reference Box

Colors on a Map

By the fifteenth century, most European maps were carefully colored.
Profile drawings of mountains and hills were shown in brown.
Rivers and lakes were shown in blue.
Vegetation was shown in green.
Special information was shown in red.
A look at the legend of a modern map confirms that the use of colors has not changed much over the past several hundred years. To facilitate the identification of features on a map, the topographical and cultural information is usually printed in different colors.

Black (Colors on a Map)

This color indicates cultural (man-made) features such as buildings and roads, surveyed spot elevations, and all labels.

Blue (Colors on a Map)

Identifies hydrography or water features such as lakes, swamps, rivers, and drainage.

Green (Colors on a Map)

This color identifies vegetation with military significance, such as woods, orchards, and vineyards.

Reddish-Brown (Colors on a Map)

The colors red and brown are combined to identify cultural features such as boundaries and major roads, all relief features, non-surveyed spot elevations, and elevations or contour lines.

Types of North

True North is a line from any point on the Earth's surface to the North Pole. All lines of longitude converge at the North Pole and are true north lines. A star is used to depict true north.
Magnetic North is the direction to the north magnetic pole, as indicated by the north-seeking needle of a magnetic compass. Magnetic readings are used to navigate in the field. A half arrowhead is used to depict magnetic north.
Grid North is the north that is established by using the vertical grid lines on the map. Grid north lines are parallel lines on the map; they do not converge at the North Pole. The letters GN are used to depict grid north.

Declination Diagram

Declination diagram is the angular difference between true north and either magnetic or grid north.
There are two declinations:
A magnetic declination
A grid declination
The declination diagram shows the angular relationship, represented by prongs, among these three types of north.

G-M Angle

G-M angle (grid-magnetic angle) value is the angular size that exists between grid north and magnetic north and the year it was prepared.
This value is expressed to the nearest 1/2 degree, with mil equivalents shown to the nearest 10 mils.
The G-M angle is important to the map reader/land navigator, because it will affect the accuracy of navigation skills in the field.

G-M Conversion

G-M conversion is applying the angular difference between the grid north and the magnetic north to convert compass readings to grid version for use in navigation.
Since the location of this magnetic field does not correspond exactly with the grid-north lines on the maps, a conversion from magnetic to grid or vice versa is needed.
Simply refer to the conversion notes that appear in conjunction with the diagram explaining the use of the G-M angle.
One note provides instructions for converting a magnetic azimuth to a grid azimuth, and the other, for converting a grid azimuth to a magnetic azimuth.
The conversion (add or subtract) is governed by the direction of the magnetic-north prong relative to that of the north-grid prong.

Contour Lines

Contour lines are the most common method of showing relief and elevation on a standard topographic map. A contour line represents an imaginary line on the ground, above or below sea level. All points on the contour line are at the same elevation. The elevation represented by contour lines is the vertical distance above or below sea level.
The three types of contour lines used on a standard topographic map are:
Index lines
Intermediate lines
Supplementary lines

Three types of contour lines used on a standard topographic map:

1. Index
Starting at zero elevation or mean sea level, every fifth contour line is a heavier line.
These are known as index contour lines.
Each index contour line is typically numbered at some point.
This number is the elevation of that line.
2. Intermediate
The contour lines falling between the index contour lines are called intermediate contour lines.
These lines are finer and do not have their elevations given.
There are normally four intermediate contour lines between index contour lines.
3. Supplementary
These contour lines resemble dashes.
They show changes in elevation of at least one-half the contour interval.
These lines are normally found where there is little change in elevation, such as on fairly level terrain.

Contour Interval

Before the elevation of any point on the map can be determined, you must know the contour interval for the map you are using. The contour interval measurement given in the marginal information is the vertical distance between adjacent contour lines.
To determine the elevation of a point on the map, find the numbered index contour line closest to the point you are trying to determine.
Determine if the point is a higher or lower elevation than the index contour line.
Once that is established, you can count the number of contours higher or lower and, by referencing the marginal data, determine your actual elevation.

Elevation and Relief

Terrain features do not normally stand alone.

Major Terrain Features (Elevation and Relief)

1. Hill
A hill is an area of high ground. From a hilltop, the ground slopes down in all directions.
A hill is shown on a map by contour lines forming concentric circles.
The inside of the smallest closed circle is the hilltop.
2. VALLEY
A valley is reasonably level ground bordered on the sides by higher ground. A valley may or may not contain a stream course.
Contour lines indicating a valley are U- or V-shaped and tend to parallel a stream before crossing it.
The closed end of the contour line (U or V) always points upstream or toward high ground.
A valley generally has maneuver room within its confines.
3. RIDGE
A ridge is a sloping line of high ground. Standing on the centerline of a ridge, you will normally have low ground in three directions and high ground in one direction with varying degrees of slope.
Contour lines forming a ridge tend to be U-shaped or V-shaped. The closed end of the contour lines points away from high ground.
Crossing a ridge at right angles, you will climb steeply to the crest and then descend steeply to the base.
When moving along the path of the ridge, depending on the geographic location, there may be an almost unnoticeable slope or a very obvious incline.
A saddle is a dip or low point between two areas of higher ground. If you are in a saddle, there is high ground in two opposite directions and lower ground in the other two directions.
Contour lines for a saddle typically resemble an hourglass.
A saddle is not necessarily the lower ground between two hilltops; it may be simply a dip or break along a level ridge crest.
5. DEPRESSION
A depression is a low point in the ground or a sinkhole. It could be described as an area of low ground surrounded by higher ground in all directions, or simply a hole in the ground.
Depressions are represented by closed contour lines that have tick marks pointing toward low ground.
Usually, only depressions that are equal to or greater than the contour interval will be shown.

Minor Terrain Features (Elevation and Relief)

6. DRAW
A draw is a less developed stream course than a valley. Standing in a draw, the ground slopes upward in three directions and downward in the other direction.
The contour lines depicting a draw are U-shaped or V-shaped, pointing toward high ground.
In a draw, there is essentially no level ground and little or no maneuver room within its confines.
7. SPUR
A spur is a short, continuous sloping line of higher ground, normally jutting out from the side of a ridge. The ground is sloped down in three directions and up in one direction.
Contour lines on a map depict a spur with the U- or V-shaped lines pointing away from high ground.
A spur is often formed by two rough parallel streams, which cut draws down the side of a ridge.
8. CLIFF
A cliff is a vertical or near vertical feature; it is an abrupt change of the land.
When a slope is so steep that the contour lines converge into one "carrying" contour of contours, this last contour line has tick marks pointing toward low ground.
Cliffs are also shown by contour lines close together and, in some instances, touching each other.

Man-made Terrain Features (Elevation and Relief)

9. CUT
A cut is a man-made feature resulting from cutting through raised ground, usually to form a level bed for a road or railroad track.
Cuts are shown on a map when they are at least 10 feet high, and they are drawn with a contour line along the cut line.
This contour line extends the length of the cut and has tick marks that extend from the cut line to the roadbed, if the map scale permits this level of detail.
10. FILL
A fill is a man-made feature resulting from filling a low area, usually to form a level bed for a road or railroad track.
Fills are shown on a map when they are at least 10 feet high, and they are drawn with a contour line along the fill line.
This contour line extends the length of the filled area and has tick marks that point toward lower ground.

Compasses are

the primary navigation tools to use when moving in an outdoor world where there is no other way to find directions.
The lensatic compass is the most common and simple instrument for measuring direction.
A reliable tool that will never lose signal or run out of batteries.

Compass Nomenclature

The lensatic compass consists of three major parts:
Cover
Base
Lens

Nomenclature and Functions

When the compass is opened, the left side is a graduated coordinate scale.
In new compasses, this scale is 1:50,000 and in old compasses it is 1:25,000.
Be sure to check the scale before using it.
Compasses are delicate instruments and should be cared for accordingly. A detailed inspection is required when first obtaining and using a compass.

Compass Dial

The compass dial floats free when in use.
It is locked in place by closing the eyepiece.
It contains two complete circular scales, one in degrees (red scale) and one in mils (black scale).
The magnetic arrow is found on the compass dial.

Bezel Ring

The bezel ring holds the upper glass crystal in place.
It helps preset a direction for night compass navigation.
It contains 120 clicks when rotated fully. Each click equals 3 degrees.

Cover

The cover contains a sighting wire.
When closed, it protects the face of the crystal.
When at a 90 degree angle to the other half of the compass, it can be used to sight on objects.
The cover includes a graduated straightedge that is referenced when orienting the map.

Thumb Loop

The thumb loop serves as a retaining device to secure the compass in a closed position.
It is used when holding the compass in position for sighting on objects.

Black Index Line

The black index line is a stationary line used as a reference line for determining direction.
It identifies the direction the compass is pointing when held properly.

Sighting Wire

The sighting wire provides an exact azimuth for objects.
It can be used for compass calibration.
It is also used with steering marks.

Base

The body of the compass contains the following movable parts:
The floating dial
The fixed black index line
The bezel ring
The thumb loop

Lens

The lens is used to read the dial. It is housed in the rear-sight. The rear-sight slot is used in conjunction with the sighting wire to sight objects.
The rear-sight serves as a lock. It clamps the dial when it is closed for its protection.
The rear-sight must be opened more than 45ï¿½ to allow the dial to float freely.

Orienting the Map

Before you can use a map, you must ensure that the map is oriented. When you orient a map, you are adjusting it so that north on the map points to north on the ground. When done correctly, the information on the map will match the features on the ground. To ensure that your map and compass are oriented, perform the following steps:
1. Determine the direction of the madnetic north and the G-M angle on the declination diagram.
2. Align the straightedge on the compass with a north-south grid line.
3. rotate the map and compass together, aligning the magnetic arrow and the fixed black index line.
4. rotate the map and compass together until the compass arrow is aligned with the magnetic north.

The center-hold technique is effective because

It is fast and easy to use.
It can be used under all conditions of visibility.
It can be used when navigating over any type of terrain.
It can be used without putting down the rifle; however, the rifle must be slung back over either shoulder.

How to do the center-hold technique:

1. Open the compass.
2. Set the lense (rear site).

The compass-to-cheek technique is more accurtae than

the center-hold technique, and it is ideal when employing intersection and resection, or when an accurate azimuth is required.

More accurate when getting an azimuth or steering marker
Ideal when employing intersection and resection techniques

How to do the compass-to-cheek technique:

1. Position the cover.
2. Fold the rear site.
3. Align the front site hairline.

Determine an Azimuth

Use your compass to determine or follow an azimuth. The arrow on the compass points toward magnetic north.
1. Raise the compass to eye level.
2. Align the center of the sighting slot.
3. Align the front hairline.
The azimuth, in degrees, is the red number on the dial lying directly under the black index line of the compass crystal. The azimuth, in mils, is the black number on the outer perimeter of the dial.

Selection and Use of Steering Marks

A steering mark is a well-defined guiding object on an azimuth. These can be natural or man-made (e.g., hill, tree, building, etc.), a celestial body (sun, stars, moon), or another person. Whether you are navigating during daylight or periods of reduced visibility, through densely wooded areas or open terrain, or over short or great distances, every step you take should be toward a selected steering mark.

Setting a Course

It is impractical for you to keep your compass out at all times when following a desired course. These steps will allow you to preset your compass to your course.
1. Set the azimuth directly under the black line index.
2. Rotate the bezel to north arrow.

Which of the following are advantages of the center-hold technique? Select all that apply.

It is the most accurate to use. NO
It is faster and easier to use. YES
It can be used under all conditions of visibility. YES
It can be used when navigating over any type of terrain. YES

Military Grid Reference System

The Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) is the geographic standard used by the United States armed forces and NATO for locating any point on the Earth. The number of digits represents the degree of precision to which a point has been located and measured on a mapï¿½the more digits the more precise the measurement.
A 4-digit grid is accurate to within 1000-meters.
A 6-digit grid is accurate to within 100-meters.
An 8-digit grid is accurate to within 10-meters.

Military Protractor

Although we have a 6-digit coordinate to help us pinpoint a location, military maps do not have 100-meter squares that help you to do this.
To help us determine a 6-digit coordinate, we use a protractor.
Identify the correct triangle on the protractor based on the map scale. The correct triangle will have a horizontal and vertical axis that matches the grid squares on your map.

Four-Digit Grid

Grid lines are a series of straight lines intersected to form a series of squares. Two digits are printed in large type at each end of the grid lines.
These numbers will be the main reference for finding your grid or location.
Vertical grid lines run from top to bottom of the map sheet: grid north/south.
Horizontal grid lines run left to right of the map sheet: grid west/east.

Six-Digit Grid

Like the 4-digit grid, the 6-digit grid uses the right-and-up rule. Break the grid square down into 10 sections. The 3rd digit, the number three, will be read right and the 6th digit, the number seven, will be read up.
Navigating within 1,000 meters using a grid coordinate is generally too broad an area to find a location. To improve navigation, we break down the 1,000-meter square into 100 smaller squares that are 100-meters by 100-meters on the ground. This will allow you to get 10 times closer to the objective.
-To navigate within a range of 100 meters, we add numbers to our 4-digit coordinate 3050.
-The additional numbers are added to both the horizontal and vertical measurements, creating the 6-digit coordinate 303507.

EIGHT-DIGIT GRID

The 8-digit grid begins the same as both 4- and 6-digit grids. Using the grid square divided in ten parts, you then divide it even further. The fourth digit will be read right and estimated. The eighth digit will be read up and estimated.
To navigate within a range of 10 meters, we add numbers to our 6-digit coordinate 303507. The additional numbers are added to both the horizontal and vertical measurements creating an 8-digit coordinate 3034 5074.
-Remember, slide the protractor to the right until vertical grid line 30 intersects the horizontal scale at the 100-meter reading "3" and the 10-meter reading "4."
-Next, slide the protractor up, stopping at the horizontal grid line 50.
-Use the vertical scale to measure to the 100-meter reading "7," and then the 10-meter reading "4."
-This point is not only your "up" reading, 5074, but also the location of your 8-digit coordinate 30345074.

Intersections are used to find

the location of an unknown point by simultaneously occupying at least two known positions on the ground and then map sighting on the unknown location.

There are two methods of using intersections:

1. Map and Compass Method
2. Straightedge Method

MAP AND COMPASS METHOD

Map and compass method is used to locate distant or inaccessible points or objects, such as enemy targets and danger areas. You can locate positions by intersecting azimuths using your map and compass. With the position in view, use the following steps:
1. Orient the Map
2.Mark your Position of the Map
3. Determine the Magnetic Azimuth
4. Convert the Magnetic Azimuth
5. Draw a Line on the Map
6. Move to a second known Point
7. Determine the Grid Coordinates

STRAIGHTEDGE METHOD

The straightedge method is used when a compass is not available, use the straightedge method of intersection. With the position in view, use the following steps:
1. Orient the map
3. Rotate using a straightedge
4. Draw a line
5. Repeat to next position
6. Determine Coordinates

A back azimuth is

the opposite direction of an azimuth. It is comparable to doing an "about face."
To obtain a back azimuth from an azimuth, add 180 degrees if the azimuth is 180 degrees or less; subtract 180 degrees if the azimuth is more than 180 degrees.
The back azimuth of 180 degrees may be stated as 0 degrees or 360 degrees.
When an azimuth is plotted on a map between point A (starting point) and point B (ending point), the points are joined together by a straight line.
A protractor is used to measure the angle between grid north and the drawn line, and this measured azimuth is the grid azimuth.
Be careful when converting azimuths into back azimuths, as a mistake could be disastrous.

Resection is the method of

locating one's position on a map by determining the grid azimuth to a well-defined location that can be pinpointed on the map. The two methods are:
1. ONE POINT RESECTION
A one-point resection is the method of locating one's position on a map when a person is located on a linear feature on the ground such as a road, canal, or stream.
The steps to conduct a one-point resection are:
Step 1: Orient the map.
Step 2: Find a distant point.
Step 3: Determine the magnetic azimuth.
Step 4: Convert the magnetic azimuth to a grid azimuth.
Step 5: Convert the grid azimuth to a back azimuth.
Step 6: Your location is where the line crosses the linear feature.
2. TWO-POINT RESECTION
A two-point resection is the method of locating one's position on the map when the person is not located around a linear feature on the ground.
The steps to conduct a two-point resection are:
Step 1: Orient the map.
Step 2: Identify two or three known distant locations.
Step 3: Measure the magnetic azimuth.
Step 4: Convert the magnetic azimuth to a grid azimuth.
Step 5: Convert the grid azimuth to a back azimuth.
Step 6: Repeat the steps for a second position and a third position, if desired.
Step 7: The intersection of the lines is your location.

the desired azimuth on the compass while keeping a pace count until the unit has traveled the distance to the destination. During times of reduced visibility, terrain association can be difficult. During these times it is necessary to rely on your compass and pace count.
Dead reckoning consists of two fundamental steps.
-The first is the use of a protractor and graphic scales to determine the direction and distance from one point to another on a map.
-The second step is the use of a compass and some means of measuring distance to apply this information on the ground.
In other words, dead reckoning begins with the determination of a polar coordinate on a map and ends with the act of finding it on the ground.

TERRAIN ASSOCIATION

A map can be oriented by terrain association when a compass is not available or when the user has to make many quick references as he moves across country. Using this method requires careful examination of the map and the ground, and the user must know his approximate location. The technique of moving by terrain association is more forgiving of mistakes and far less time-consuming than dead reckoning.
Here are some features of terrain association:
-It best suits those situations that call for movement from one area to another. Errors made using terrain association are easily corrected because you are comparing what you expected to see from the map to what you do see on the ground.
-Errors are anticipated and will not go unchecked.
-Periodic position-fixing through either plotted or estimated resection will also make it possible to correct your movements, call for fire, or call in the locations of enemy targets or any other information of tactical or logistical importance.

BYPASSING OBSTACLES

To bypass enemy positions or obstacles and still stay oriented, detour around the obstacle by moving at right angles for a specified distance.
Here is an example of the steps involved in bypassing an obstacle:
-While moving on an azimuth of 0 degrees, change the azimuth to 90 degrees and travel for 100 meters (add 90 degrees to your original azimuth).
-Change the azimuth to 0 degrees and travel for 200 meters (move along your original azimuth).
-Change the azimuth to 270 degrees and travel for 100 meters (subtract 90 degrees from your original azimuth).
-Finally, change the azimuth to 0 degrees and the azimuth is back on your original azimuth line.

A deliberate offset is

a planned magnetic deviation to the right or left of an azimuth to an objective. Use it when the objective is located along or in the vicinity of a linear feature such as a road, or a stream.
-Because of errors in the compass or in map reading, the linear feature may be reached without knowing whether the objective lies to the right or left.
-A deliberate offset informs the navigator of the direction to travel upon reaching the linear feature.

A checkpoint is a

predetermined point on the ground used as a means of controlling movement or reference for location. The types of checkpoints selected should assist the leader's navigation.

A line checkpoint is a

The advantages of line checkpoints are:
-They are usually easy to identify upon arrival.
-Because they stretch across your route, you are certain to hit it, even if you stray.
The disadvantages of line checkpoints are:
-You may not know your exact location on that feature unless you perform a resection or inspection.
-They can be confused with features that are similar to them.

Point checkpoints are

specific objects or terrain features that, if located and properly identified, positively indicate your exact location.
The advantage of a point checkpoint is that it indicates precisely where you are, allowing you to correct any mistakes in both distance and direction.
The disadvantages of point checkpoints are:
-Because point checkpoints cover just a small area on the ground, you may miss them.
-There may be many terrain features in the area that look like the feature you select as a checkpoint.

Combination Checkpoints

The ideal type of checkpoint is one that is either a combination of two line checkpoints or a line checkpoint and a point checkpoint.
The advantages of combination checkpoints are:
-Since the linear feature stretches across your route, you cannot miss it. Once at the linear feature, you need only follow it until you come to the point feature. You are then at your checkpoint.
-Since you can accurately determine an exact point on the ground from this type of checkpoint, it offers you information about distance and direction.

__________ are used to find the location of an unknown point by simultaneously occupying at least two known positions on the ground and then map sighting on the unknown location.

Intersections

A ___________ is a planned magnetic deviation to the right or left of an azimuth to an objective.

Deliberate offset

EFFECTS OF METAL AND ELECTRICITY

Metal objects and electrical sources can affect the performance of a compass. However, nonmagnetic metals and alloys do not affect compass readings. The separation distances are:
High-tension power lines
55 meters
Field gun, truck, or tank
18 meters
Telegraph or telephone wires and barbed wire
10 meters
Machine gun
2 meters
Rifle
1/2 meters

INSPECTIONS

Compasses are delicate instruments and should be cared for accordingly. A detailed inspection is required when first obtaining and using a compass.
-The floating dial's glass and crystal parts are not broken.
-The numbers on the dial are legible.
-The floating dial does not stick.
-The sighting wire is straight.
-The bezel ring produces distinct clicks when turned.
You should also periodically check the compass's accuracy at a declination station. If your compass varies more than three degrees, you should not use it.

CARE AND MAINTENANCE

The lensatic compass was built to increase its serviceable life. Adherence to a very simple maintenance regimen will significantly increase the life of the lensatic compass.
Maintenance requirements are as follows:
-Rinse in fresh water, especially after exposure to salt water.
-Brush off dirt and grime.
-Ensure the ridges on the bezel ring are free of dirt.
-Check movement of the rear sight to ensure it is free moving.

Which of the following are limitations that can impair the performance of a lensatic compass? Select all that apply.

High-tension power lines. YES
Field gun, truck, or tank. YES
Telegraph or telephone wires and barbed wire. YES
Machinegun. YES

What are the three types of north shown in the declination diagram? Select all that apply.

True north,Magnetic north,Grid north

A __________ is a low point in the ground or a sinkhole.

Depression

A map is defined as __________.

A graphic representation of a portion of the Earth's surface drawn to scale, as seen from above.

Which of the following are the proper techniques for holding a compass and getting an azimuth? Select all that apply.

Center-hold technique,Compass-to-cheek technique.

The radio equipment for communication between two stations and the path the signal follows through the air is called a radio link. A radio link consists of seven components: the transmitter, power supply, transmission lines, transmitting antenna, propagation path, receiving antenna, and receiver. The transmitter generates a radio signal. The power supply (i.e., battery or generator) supplies power for the operating voltage of the radio.
When transmitting, the radio operator aims to provide the strongest possible signal at the site of the receiving station. The best possible signal is the signal that provides the greatest signal-to-noise ratio at the receiving antenna.
To transmit the best possible signal, select or determine the:
-Optimum frequency
-Best antenna for that frequency based on the available space of the transmitting site
-Proper propagation path

The three types of radio modes are

simplex, half duplex, and full duplex.
-Simplex mode has one station that may send information over a single frequency. An example of simplex mode would be AM/FM radio stations.
-Half duplex mode has information that can be transmitted and received in either direction, but not in both directions simultaneously. An example of this is a single-channel two-way radio such as a Motorola.
-Full duplex mode allows for an uninterrupted exchange of information between two stations. A telephone would be an example of full duplex mode.

the principal means of communications support for MAGTF maneuver units.
-Easy to operate
-Networks are easily established
-Rapidly reconfigured
-Easily maintained on the move
-Secure voice communications
-Limited data information exchange

FREQUENCY BANDS AND CHARACTERISTICS

Each frequency band has certain characteristics. The ranges and power requirements are for normal operating conditions (proper siting, antenna orientation, and correct operating procedures). The ranges will change according to the condition of the propagation medium and the transmitter output power. Using the correct frequency is extremely important. Never leave your frequency unless a higher authorizes you to do so. Always ensure that you are using the correct frequency.
There are three tactical single channel frequency bands:
-High Frequency (HF) long-distance
-Very High Frequency (VHF) short-distance
-Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) short-distance

High Frequency (HF) long-distance numbers:

Ground Wave Range = 0-50 miles
Sky Wave Range = 100-8000 miles
Power Required = .5-5 kW

Very High Frequency (VHF) short-distance numbers:

Ground Wave Range = 0-30 miles
Sky Wave Range = 50-150 miles
Power Required = .5 or less kW

Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) short-distance numbers:

Ground Wave Range = 0-50 miles
Sky Wave Range = N/A
Power Required = .5 or less kW

its capability to provide long-range, over the horizon (OTH) communication. Successful data communications over the HF range depends on several factors:
-Equipment siting
-Proper equipment grounding
-Types of antennas used
-Path assessment and analysis
-Frequency planning and assignment

Very High Frequency (VHF)

The primary MAGTF VHF radio is the single-channel ground and airborne radio system (SINCGARS). SINCGARS is a family of lightweight combat radios that serves as the primary means of communications for command and control and fire support on the battlefield. SINCGARS is the standard VHF-FM tactical radio for the Marine Corps. It replaced the AN/PRC-77 and the AN/VRC-12 family.
-The system provides high security against the threat of electronic warfare (EW) by using frequency hopping with integrated COMSEC.
-It is capable of voice and data transmission (up to 16 kbps under optimum conditions and over limited distances) over the VHF-FM frequency.

forward air control (FAC) ground-to-air communication. Line of sight between radios is critical for reliable communications. Significant range differences are encountered between UHF radios employed for ground-to-air and ground-to-ground communications. Greater range is achieved when employed from ground-to-air communications because of the increased line of sight. When UHF radios are employed in the frequency hopping mode, the following operating factors must be understood for proper operation:
-Hopset
-Time of day
-Antenna placement
-Power setting

always present in a military environment. It may come from a single source or a combination of many sources including natural or man-made interference.
Frequency interference can derive from:
-Poor equipment condition
-Improper equipment usage
-The use of unauthorized frequencies
-Frequency reuse

Natural Interference

Natural radio noise has two principal sources, thunderstorms (atmospheric noise) and stars (galactic noise).
It is especially noticeable at night when the lower frequencies propagate farther than in the daytime. The only way to reduce this type of interference is to use a directional antenna to prevent receiving the interference from all directions. However, this will not eliminate the noise coming from the direction of the received signal. Use of a higher frequency will also help, although if a sky wave circuit is used, care must be exercised not to pick the highest frequency at which the signal will be refracted to Earth by the ionosphere (i.e., the critical frequency).

Most man-made interference comes from electrical sources such as:

-Power generators
-Power lines
-M998/1038, M1043/44/45/46 HUMVEE
-Faulty electrical relay contacts
The key to combating this form of interference is to isolate communications equipment from man-made interference. The interference from known sources such as generators can be greatly reduced if an antenna is positioned so that an obstacle (e.g., a hill) is between it and the source. This must be done so that the same obstacle will not block the intended radio path.

Tactical radio equipment has certain capabilities and limitations that must be carefully considered when operating in extreme areas. However, in spite of significant limitations, radio is the normal means of communications in such areas. One of the most important capabilities of radio in these areas is its versatility.
-Vehicular-mounted radios can be moved relatively easily to almost any point where it is possible to install a command headquarters.
-Smaller, man-packed radios can be carried to any point accessible by foot or aircraft.

Desert Areas

Tactical radio is usually the primary means of communications in the desert. It can be employed effectively in desert climate and terrain to provide the highly mobile means of communications demanded by widely dispersed forces. However, desert terrain provides poor electrical ground, and counterpoises are needed to improve operation. For the best operation in the desert, radio antennas should be located on the highest terrain available. Transmitters using whip antennas in the desert will lose one-fifth to one-third of their normal range because of the poor electrical grounding characteristics of desert terrain. For this reason, it is important to use complete antenna systems such as horizontal dipoles and vertical antennas with adequate counterpoises.

Jungle Areas

actical radio communications in jungle areas must be carefully planned because the dense jungle growth significantly reduces the range of radio transmission. However, since tactical radio can be deployed in many configurations, especially man-packed, it is a valuable communications asset. Mobility is also an advantage of tactical radio.
Apply the following techniques to improve communications in the jungle:
-Antennas should be located in clearings on the edge farthest from the distant station and as high as possible.
-Antenna cables and connectors should be kept off the ground to lessen the effects of moisture, fungus, and insects.
-Complete antenna systems, such as ground planes and dipoles, are more effective than fractional wavelength whip antennas.
-Vegetation must be cleared from antenna sites. If an antenna touches any foliage, especially wet foliage, the signal will be grounded.

Cold Weather Environment

Whenever possible, tactical radios for tactical operations in cold weather areas should be installed in vehicles to reduce the problem of transportation and shelter for operators. This will also help solve some of the grounding and antenna installation problems caused by the climate. Because of permafrost and deep snow, it is difficult to establish good electrical grounding in extremely cold areas. The conductivity of frozen ground is often too low to provide good ground wave propagation.
-To improve ground wave operation, use a counterpoise to offset the degrading effects of poor electrical ground conductivity.
-Remember to install a counterpoise high enough above the ground so that it will not be covered by snow.
-Mast sections and antenna cables must be handled carefully since they become brittle in very low temperatures.
-Whenever possible, antenna cables should be constructed overhead to prevent damage from heavy snow and frost.

Mountainous Areas

Operations of tactical radios in mountainous areas have many of the same problems as northern or cold weather areas. However, the mountainous terrain makes the selection of transmission sites a critical task. The terrain restrictions encountered frequently make radio relay stations necessary for good communications. Because of terrain obstacles, tactical radio transmissions will frequently have to be by line of sight. Also, the ground in mountainous areas is often a poor electrical conductor.
-A complete antenna system, such as a dipole or ground-plane antenna with a counterpoise, should be used.
-The maintenance procedures required in mountainous areas are very often the same as maintenance in northern or cold weather areas.
-The varied or seasonal temperature and climatic conditions in mountainous areas make flexible maintenance planning a necessity.

Urbanized Areas

Tactical radio communications in urbanized terrain poses special problems. Some problems are similar to those encountered in mountainous areas:
-Obstacles blocking transmission paths
-Poor electrical conductivity because of pavement surfaces
-Commercial power line interference
VHF radios are not as effective in urbanized terrain as they are in some other areas. The power output and operating frequencies of these VHF radios require a line of sight between antennas. Line of sight at street level is not always possible in built-up areas.
To provide cover and concealment in urban areas, park radio-equipped vehicles around or in buildings, dismount radio equipment and install it inside buildings, and place generators against buildings or under sheds to decrease noise and provide concealment.

TRANSMISSION SECURITY

Transmission security is the component of communications security that results from all measures designed to protect transmissions from interception and exploitation by means other than cryptanalysis. The enemy hopes to learn essential elements of friendly information (EEFI). Critical information that must be protected can be remembered by the key words SELDOM UP.
Each letter of SELDOM UP indicates a class of information as follows:
Strengthï¿½number of personnel, size of unit
Equipmentï¿½type, quantity, condition
Logisticsï¿½procedure for resupply, depots
Dispositionï¿½where, what positions, map coordinates
Organizationï¿½how, what, chain of command, force's structure
Movement and moraleï¿½where, how, when, good or bad
Unitsï¿½type, designation
Personalitiesï¿½who, where

BASIC TRANSMISSION SECURITY MEASURES

Strict radio discipline and adherence to authorized procedures are key to ensuring transmission security over tactical radio networks. SINCGARS radios should be operated in a frequency hopping mode to provide maximum protection against enemy electronic warfare capabilities.
Other transmission security measures include:
Well-trained operators thoroughly familiar with proper communications procedures and equipment operation
Avoidance of unauthorized transmission and testing and maximum use of data networks to minimize transmission time and opportunity for enemy direction finding
Use of transmitter, antenna, and power combinations that produce minimum wave propagation and emission intensity consistent with reliable communications
Use of authentication systems to protect against imitative deception on non-secure nets
Use of changing call signs and frequencies on non-secure nets
Use of communications means that do not radiate in the electromagnetic spectrum such as messengers, visual and sound signaling, and local wire loops

Which of the following are benefits of a tactical radio? Select all that apply.

Easy to operate. YES
The networks are easily established. YES
Easily maintained. YES
Rapidly reconfigured. YES

Which of the following frequencies provides long-range communication?

Very High Frequency. NO
Ultrahigh Frequency. NO
Medium Frequency. NO
High Frequency. YES

TRANSMISSION FORMAT AND CALL SIGNS

There are four basic steps in the transmission format that must be used every time you transmit on the radio.
Step 1: State the call sign of the station you are calling.
Step 2: State your call sign.
Step 3: Transmit the text of the message.
Step 4: Provide an ending. Use "over" when you are done speaking in the transmission and are awaiting a reply and "out" when the conversation is to be terminated.
Call signs are used in radio communications to identify a command, communications facility, an authority, or a unit when transmitting messages.
To avoid confusion and errors during voice transmission, special techniques have been developed for pronouncing letters and numerals. The phonetic alphabet is used by the operator to spell difficult words and prevent misunderstandings on the part of the receiving operator.

Example Transmission Format

Field Radio Operator: "Echo Six One, this is Echo Fo-wer Six. Over."
Command Operations Center "Echo Fo-wer Six, this is Echo Six One. Over."
Field Radio Operator: "Present location check point Bravo. Over."
Command Operations Center "Roger. Echo Six One. Out.

PROCEDURE WORDS (PRO-WORDS)

Radio operators use procedure words that have been formed to replace lengthy and time consuming sentences. These words are more commonly known as pro-words. This form of implicit communication is used for speed and accuracy of transmissions.
Here are examples of the most commonly used pro-words in tactical communications.
-This is
-Over
-Out
-Roger
-Say Again
-I Say Again
-After All / All Before

THIS IS

This is" is used to identify the station or speaker whose call sign immediately follows. It is like an introduction, when you say, "I am Cpl __________." You will always find this pro-word at step two of the transmission format.
Example -
"Alpha Six One this is Tango Ate Six. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Tango Ate Six this is Alpha Six One. Over."
"Present location checkpoint Bravo. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Roger. Alpha Six One. Out.

OVER

The pro-word "Over" is used at the end of your transmission when a reply from the receiving party is necessary.
Example -
"Alpha Six One this is Tango Ate Six. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Tango Ate Six this is Alpha Six One. Over."
"Present location checkpoint Bravo. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Roger. Alpha Six One. Out.

OUT

The pro-word "Out" is used to end the transmission. No response is necessary. The term "over and out" should never be used together. By examining their meaning, you will see that they contradict each other.
Example -
"Alpha Six One this is Tango Ate Six. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Tango Ate Six this is Alpha Six One. Over."
"Present location checkpoint Bravo. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Roger. Alpha Six One. Out.

ROGER

Roger" indicates that the last transmission has been satisfactorily received. This pro-word is a receipt, just as you would get a receipt when you pay money for an item. If the message is received correctly, the operator will always "Roger" for it.
Example -
"Alpha Six One this is Tango Ate Six. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Tango Ate Six this is Alpha Six One. Over."
"Present location checkpoint Bravo. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Roger. Alpha Six One. Out.

SAY AGAIN

The word repeat is only used in signaling naval gunfire and artillery fires. If the operator misses all or any part of the transmission, the pro-word "Say again" will be used to request the missing part of the message.
Example -
"Alpha Six Bravo this is Tango Ate Golf. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Tango Ate Golf this is Alpha Six Bravo. Over."
"Present location checkpoint Bravo. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Say again last transmission. Over"
"I say again. Present location checkpoint Bravo. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Roger. Alpha Six One. Out.

I SAY AGAIN

When you hear the pro-word "Say again" you will respond by stating "I say again" followed by the transmission (or portion) indicated.
Example -
"Alpha Six Bravo this is Tango Ate Golf. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Tango Ate Golf this is Alpha Six Bravo. Over."
"Present location checkpoint Bravo. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Say again last transmission. Over"
"I say again. Present location checkpoint Bravo. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Roger. Alpha Six One. Out.

VERIFY / I VERIFY

Verify" indicates the entire message needs to be verified with the originator and the correct version transmitted. Once the message has been verified with the originator the correct version will begin with "I Verify."
Example -
"Alpha Six Bravo this is Tango Ate Golf. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Tango Ate Golf this is Alpha Six Bravo. Over."
"Present location checkpoint Bravo. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Verify. Over"
"I verify. Present location checkpoint Bravo. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Roger. Alpha Six One. Out.

ALL AFTER / ALL BEFORE

When the pro-word "Say Again" is used, the operator will indicate what part of the message needs to be repeated by using "All After" or "All Before."
Example -
"Alpha Six Bravo this is Tango Ate Golf. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Tango Ate Golf this is Alpha Six Bravo. Over."
"Present location checkpoint Bravo. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Say again all before checkpoint Bravo. Over"
"I say again. Present location. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Roger. Alpha Six One. Out.

COMMONLY USED PRO-WORDS

These pro-words or phrases are limited to radio operations and used to condense information in a standardized form. The only authorized pro-words are listed in MCRP 3-40.3.
More commonly used pro-words are:
-Correction
-Message
-Wrong
-Time
-Disregard
-I Spell
There are also commonly misused or unauthorized pro-words, such as "copy," "solid copy," "lima charlie," and "check." Unless used in the text of the message, these words should be avoided.

CORRECTION

Using the pro-word "Correction" is an indication that an error has been made in this message. This pro-word is immediately followed by the corrected version. When there is a correction in a transmission it is good practice to have the message read back.
Example -
"Enemy troops moving north. Correction. Moving south on highway fo-wer, fo-wer (44). Over."
Command Operations Center
"Roger. Enemy troops moving south on highway fo-wer, fo-wer (44). Alpha Six One. Out.

MESSAGE FOLLOWS

The pro-word "Message Follows" indicates that the information is important and needs to be recorded.
Example -
"Alpha Six One this is Tango Ate Six. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Tango Ate Six this is Alpha Six One. Over.
"Message Follows. Sighted ten enemy tanks at coordinate niner, tree, zero, fo-wer, fo-wer, ate, ate (930 488). Break. Tanks moving west toward hill one, fo-wer, tree (143). Over."
Command Operations Center
"Roger. Alpha Six One. Out.

When the originator of the message wants to be sure that the addressee has received the message exactly as the originator sent it, the pro-word "Read back" is used immediately following the call.
Example -
"Alpha Six One this is Tango Ate Six. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Tango Ate Six this is Alpha Six One. Over."
"Message Follows. Sighted ten enemy tanks at coordinate niner, tree, zero, fo-wer, ate, ate (930488). Break. Tanks moving west toward hill one, fo-wer, tree. Break. Read back. Over."
Command Operations Center
"I read. Sighted ten enemy tanks at coordinate niner, tree, zero, fo-wer, ate, ate. Tanks moving west toward hill one, fo-wer, tree. Over.
"Roger. Tango Ate Six. Out.

BREAK

Break" is used to indicate a separation of the text from other portions of the message similar to how a period is used to separate sentences. This reduces transmission time by breaking information into short bursts. It may also be used to interrupt a transmission if the recorder becomes lost at any point in the message.
Examples -
"Sighted ten enemy tanks at coordinate niner, tree, zero, fo-wer, fo-wer, ate, ate (930 488). Break. Tanks moving west toward hill one, fo-wer, tree (143). Over."
Command Operations Center
"Roger. Alpha Six One. Out.
"Sighted ten enemy tanks at coordinate niner, tree, zero, fo-wer, fo-wer, ate, ate (930 488). Break. Tanks moving west toward hill one...
Command Operations Center
"Break. Break. Say again, all after ten enemy tanks. Over.

WRONG

If you are verifying or reading back a transmission, the pro-word "Wrong" will be used to indicate that your transmission is incorrect. The correct version will be read back to you following this pro-word. It is not necessary for the originator to transmit the entire message back, if only one word or number is read back wrong.
Example -
"Message Follows. Sighted ten enemy tanks at coordinate niner, tree, zero, fo-wer, ate, ate (930 488). Break. Tanks moving west toward hill one fo-wer tree. Break. Read back. Over."
Command Operations Center
"I read. Sighted ten enemy tanks at coorindate niner, tree, fo-wer, ate, ate. Tanks moving past hill one, fo-wer, tree. Over."
"Wrong. Coordinate niner, tree, zero, fo-wer, ate, ate. Over.

TIME

Time" is used to indicate the time or date-time group of the message. Time is expressed in a four-digit number representing the 24-hour clock.
Example -
"Sighted ten enemy tanks at coordinate niner, tree, zero, fo-wer, fo-wer, ate, ate (930 488). Break. Tanks moving west toward hill one, fo-wer, tree (143). Break. Time. Two one tree zero (2130). Over."
Command Operations Center
"Roger. Alpha Six One. Out.

DISREGARD THIS TRANSMISSION

During the transmission of a message and before the transmission pro-word "over" or "out" the operator may cancel the transmission by the use of the pro-words "Disregard this transmission." This pro-word shall not be used to cancel any message that has been completely transmitted and for which receipt or acknowledgment has been received.
Example -
"Alpha Six One this is Tango Ate Six. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Tango Ate Six this is Alpha Six One. Over."
"Sighted ten enemy tanks. Break. Moving west toward. Break. Disregard this transmission. Out.

I SPELL

I Spell" is used to reduce chance of error when transmitting difficult words, code group, and single letters that are part of a message. The phonetic alphabet is used instead of the letter alphabet to further reduce the chance of error.
Example -
"Alpha Six One this is Tango Ate Six. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Tango Ate Six this is Alpha Six One. Over."
"Message follows. Detained one local male. Break. Identified as Aseed Furhad. I spell. Alpha, sierra, echo, echo, delta, foxtrot, umbrella, romeo, hotel, alpha, delta. Break. Man was following patrol with cell phone. Over

Prolonged transmissions enable the enemy to locate your station using direction-finding equipment. Keep your transmissions short and to the point by not keying the handset for more than 3 seconds per transmission. Avoid unnecessary and unauthorized transmissions between operators.
-Use the correct pro-words.
-Use good voice techniques.
-Listen before transmitting.
-Speak in a clear, distinctive voice.
-Speak in natural phrases. Saying one word at a time makes it difficult to understand what is being said.
-Transmit three to four words at a time and allow the distant station time to copy your message.

Which step is being used when the operator says, "Present location checkpoint Bravo, over"?

Step 1: The call sign of the station you are calling. NO
Step 2: Your call sign. NO
Step 3: The text of the message. YES
Step 4: The ending . NO

Which of the following are standard radio procedures used to communicate between operators? Select all that apply.

Use good voice techniques. YES
The frequent use of unauthorized frequencies. NO
Speak in a clear, distinctive voice. YES

WHAT TO REPORT

No single activity in war is more important than command and control. By itself it will not drive home a single attack, destroy an enemy target, or effect an emergency resupply, yet none of these essential warfighting activities are possible without it. To establish effective command and control, the commander requires accurate and timely information to make decisions and direct activities to influence or support. The unit leader will get requests for specific reports to accompany the general reports that accompany the mission. To assist the commanders in command and control these reports must be accurate, detailed, and timely and should contain information about:
-Enemy
-Terrain

HOW TO REPORT

Unit standard operating procedures usually determine the methods for reporting information during specific operations.
The officer dispatching the unit will instruct the unit leader on method of report delivery (primary and secondary), definitive schedules, and any "no comm" plans prior to the start of the mission.
It is imperative that the reports are accurate, clear, and complete. These reports should answer the five W's: who, what, when, where, and why.
Commonly used reports include:
-Situation reports (SITREP)
-Position reports (POSREP)
-Spotting Reports (SPOTREP)
-Explosive Hazard Spotting Reports (EHSPOTREP)

SITUATION REPORT

The situation report (SITREP) is one of the most commonly used reports. It is used to report on an event to higher headquarters. It provides commanders and staff with sufficient information to understand the situation of subordinate units and if necessary, act on the report.
In most cases, this is a summary of updated changes to or not previously reported significant events and or logistical needs. It should be sent to your higher as directed by unit standard operating procedures standard operating procedures.

EXAMPLE SITREP

"Bravo Two Charlie. This is Sierra Two Foxtrot. Stand by for SITREP. Over.
Command Operations Center
"Sierra Two Foxtrot, this is Bravo Two Charlie. Ready to copy. Over."
"One, two, one, tree, fo-wer, fife (121345) Zulu June one, six (16). Break. Mike Golf one, two, tree, fo-wer, fife, six (123456); Break. Inserted at Primary LZ. Established patrol base. Break. CASEVAC of 1st squad leader. Conducting contact patrols. Break. Need resupply on water, 5 water jugs; 5.56 ball, 6000 rounds. Break. Sgt Hatfield. Left ankle broken. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Roger. Bravo Two Charlie. Out.

SITREP PARTS

(SITREP /EXPLANATION/WHAT'S TRANSMITTED)
DTG / Date-time group /121345ZJUN11
Activities Conducted/Since last report/INSERTED AT PRIMARY LZ, ESTABLISHED A PATROL BASE
Actions Planned/Next 12 hours/CASEVAC of 1ST SQD LDR, GOING OUT ON COMBAT PATROL
Logistical Requiremnents/Food, ammo, water, etc./RESUPPLY ON WATER, NEED MORE 5.56 BALL
Personal Casualties/Since last CASREP/SGT. HARDCORE, LEFT ANKLE BREAK
Remarks/As required/NONE (OVER)

POSITION REPORT

The position report (POSREP) is a brief transmission that reports your current location. The regularity of position reports will be determined by the operation order (OPORDER).
It is vitally important that the command knows where you are at all times to deconflict incoming request from higher and adjacent friendly units. Every element in combat must be accounted for to maintain positive command and control and avoid blue on blue incidents. Position reports are understood to be the location of the unit's lead element.
Unless otherwise specified in the OPORDER, grid coordinates for your current location are given in 8-digit format. If the order has established check points, grid coordinates are not necessary as locations will be given in reference to the nearest checkpoint. Example: "From CP Fox. Break. 1200 West. 500 North. Over."
If you are on the move, primary cardinal directions such as north, south, east, or west are used. Example: "Sierra Two Foxtrot. From CP Fox. 1200 West. Moving East along route Michigan.

EXAMPLE POSREP

"Bravo Two Charlie. This is Sierra Two Foxtrot. Stand by for POSREP. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Sierra Two Foxtrot, this is Bravo Two Charlie. Ready to copy. Over."
"Mike Golf. Seven, fife, six, ate, fo-wer, tree, zero, ate (7568 4308). Over."
Command Operations Center
"Roger. Bravo Two Charlie. Out.

POSREP PARTS

(POSREP/EXPLANATION/WHAT IS TRAMSMITED)
DTG/Eight-didgit grid coordinate/MG 75684308

ENEMY SPOTTING REPORT (SPOTREP)

An understanding of enemy activities is crucial to making command decisions on when and where to engage. A commander often acts on information furnished by enemy spotting reports. Therefore, these reports must be absolutely accurate in reporting enemy activity.
The enemy spotting report, also known as the SALUTE report, is used to identify the enemy, their capabilities, and their actions. The acronym SALUTE is a simple method of remembering the information required in the report:
-Size
-Activity
-Location
-Unit
-Time
-Equipment

EXAMPLE SPOTREP

"Bravo Two Charlie. This is Sierra Two Foxtrot. Stand by for SPOTREP. Over.
Command Operations Center
Sierra Two Foxtrot, this is Bravo Two Charlie. Ready to copy. Over.
"Ate (8) enemy soldiers. Break. Constructing reinforced bunker. Break. Mike Golf seven, six, fife, niner, tree, two, six, fo-wer (MG7659 3264). Break. 3rd East Infantry Brigade. Break. One, fife, one, tree, fo-wer, fife (151345) Zulu February one six (16). Break. One general purpose tent, Ate (8) AK-47s, six (6) shovels. Over."
Command Operations Center
"Roger. Bravo Two Charlie. Out.

SPOTREP PARTS

(SPOTREP/EXPLANATION/WHAT'S TRANSMITTED)
Size/Size of enemy force/EIGHT MEN
Activity/What the enemy is doing/BUILDING A REINFORCED BUNKER
Location/Accurate 8-didgit grif where enemy was last observed/MG76593264
Unit/Enemy unit (can be derived from markings, unifrorm, or POW interrogation)/3RD EAST INFANTRY BRIDGE
Time/Time and Date you saw the enemy/151345Z FEB 11
Equiptment/Gear at enemy location/ONE GP TENT, FOUR AK-47S, SIX SHOVELS. OVER.

EXPLOSIVE HAZARD SPOTTING REPORT (EH SPOTREP)

The EH Spot Report is the first echelon report sent when an observer detects an unexploded ordnance (UXO) or improvised explosive device (IED) threat. The report is a detailed, two-way reporting system that clearly indicates where the UXO/IED hazard areas are, the priority for clearance, and which units are affected. The nine-line EH SPOTREP gets forwarded through your chain of command who is responsible for forwarding through command channels and sets proper priority in requesting explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) support. Line nine priorities are based on the impact of your mission, not whether the munitions are dangerous.

EH SPOTREP

(EHSPOTREP/EXPLANATION/WHAT'S TRANSMITTED)
DTG/ Date & time of the fall, impact, or discovery of the UXO item/ 081720ZJUL11
Reporting Activity/ Unit identification code of the reporting unit & exact location of items(s) including (8-didgit minimum)/ MG 67539871
Contact Method/Radio frequency, call sign, point of contact, & telephone number/ 121.21/E6G
Type of Munitions/Size, quantity, type, and subgroup/ POSSIBLE IED/PARTIALLY BURNED WITH WIRES LEADING SOUTH/NO TRIGGER MAN IN SIGHT
CBRN Contamintaion/If present, be as specific as possible/ NONE
Resources Threatened/Report any equiptment, facilities, or other assets that're threatened/ MSR GOLD/CIVILIAN HOMES & LIVESTOCK
Impact on Mission/Current tactical situation & how hazard affects status/ UNABLE TO CONTINUE MISSION
Protective Measure/Safety measures taken, including evacuation distances accomplished/ CORDON SET/300 M
Recommended Priority/Requested priority for recieving EOD support/ IMMEDIATE OR INDIRECT OR MINNOR OR NO THREAT

Types of Priorities

1. IMMEDIATE
This priority stops the unit's maneuver and mission capabilities or threatens critical assets vital to the mission.
2. INDIRECT
This priority slows the unit's maneuver and mission capabilities or threatens critical assets important to the mission.
3. MINOR
This priority reduces the unit's maneuver and mission capabilities or threatens non-critical assets of value.
4. NO THREAT
This has little or no effect on unit capabilities or assets.