Erikson's Psychosocial Theory
1. trust v mistrust
2. autonomy v shame
3. initiative vs guilt
4. industry vs inferiority
5. identity vs role confusion
6. intimacy vs isolation
7. generatively vs stagnation
8. ego integrity vs despair
Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory
To Piaget, cognitive development was a progressive reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and environmental experience.
- schemas, equilibrium, accommodation, assimilation, preop, sensorimotor, etc
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Cognitive Theory
learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function
Piaget's Theory of Moral Development
heteronomous morality vs autonomous morality
Social Roles Theory
theory that social roles for males and females enhance or suppress different capabilities, so that males and females tend to develop different skills and attitudes, which leads to gender-specific behaviors
theory of multiple intelligences
Gardner's intelligence theory that proposes that there are eight distinct spheres of intelligence
identity status model
an approach to conceptualizing and researching identity development that classifies people into one of four identity categories: foreclosure, diffusion, moratorium, or achievement
Sternberg's Theory of Love
intimacy+passion+commitment = consumate love
Contemporary Life-Events Approach to human development
Approach emphasizing that how a life event influences the individual's development depends not only on the life event, but also on mediating factors, the individuals adaption to the life event, the life stage context, & the sociohistorical context
socioemotional selectivity theory
social support/friendships dwindle in number, but remain as close, if not more close than in earlier years
stages of dying
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
Through what ages does early adulthood typically occur?
What are the five key features of emerging adulthood that differentiate it from other developmental periods?
identity exploration: Continued time exploration different identity options, especially in work and love.
Self-focus: Greatest deal of autonomy we will likely have compared to any other time in our lives. Free of many social obligations and allowance to f
In what ways have expectations for emerging adult milestones changed over time?
previous generations goals:
- finish college
- get a full time job
- get married and have kids
People are postponing these responsibilities and hitting these milestones later in life now than previous generation
Why is it that not all cultures have a version of "emerging adulthood"?
Requires ability to postpone adult responsibilities Allows emerging adult to explore their options, continue to develop identity
In cultures where adult responsibilities are assumed earlier (right after adolescence), there is no emerging adult phase
What are the major milestones (or markers) listed by emerging adults as being signs of adulthood?
Obtaining full-time work
Achieving financial independence
Taking responsibility for one's actions
Developing emotional control / maturity
Marriage (may vary by culture)
What do we mean by the concept "failure to launch" in emerging adulthood? What factors are related to failure to launch?
Not engaging in the typical activities of adulthood
-E.g., higher education, full-time work, moving out
- Lack of independent living and economic self-sufficiency
-FTL is marked by passivity
- Difficulty with leaving their family of origin / staying at ho
How does our physical health compare in emerging adulthood to other time periods in our lives? What are the greatest threats to our physical health in emerging adulthood?
- emerging adulthood: peak health
- decline as we approach the 30s
Most common threats to health for emerging adults come from our behaviors:
-Poor diet / obesity
- Substance abuse
- Risky sexual behaviors / unprotected sex
- Unhealthy weight
What are the common trends in terms of sexual behavior during emerging adulthood? How do these sexual behaviors look different between genders (in terms of gender scripts, dating)? What differences (if any) do we find between heterosexual and same-sex cou
Number of sexual partners:
60% of people report having only one partner in the past year
About 1/3rd report two or more partners in past year 1/4th report not having sex at all
Rates of sexual activity:
1/3 have sex twice a week or more (most often relati
What are the three main qualities of love according to Sternberg's Theory? Be able to identify and describe the major forms of love discussed by Sternberg.
3 main qualities: intimacy, commitment, and passion
forms of love:
liking: intimacy alone: friends
infatuation: passion alone: one night stands
empty love: commitment alone
romantic: intimacy+passion "in love"
companionate: intimacy+commitment: friendship
Who do we choose for romantic partners? What kinds of qualities do we look for in romantic partners?
we choose ppl w the same characteristics as us:
Our partner validates our world views with their consent
What are the major trends we notice in terms of families of emerging / early adults?
Age of marriage older than previous generations (M: 29, F: 27) Average age of childbirth also increasing (Women: 27) Birth control provides greater control over when to have children Allows more time for mother to focus on career Women overall are hav
What does the standard career progression look like for someone starting in adolescence through early adulthood?
Young children: Fantasies about superheroes, sports star, movie actors
Adolescents: Become less idealistic, more serious consideration
Emerging adulthood (20's): Begin actively exploring career options
College and choosing a major for a particular field E
For what reasons do people work? What aspects of jobs tend to be the most stressful for people
sense of purpose, daily structure
Sources of stress within the job: Low salaries Lack of advancement opportunities Long hours Unclear job expectations Responsibility for lives of others
Through what ages is typically considered middle adulthood?
How does middle adulthood look different today than it did several generations ago?
50 y/o's today vs. 40 y/o's past two generations:
-Increases in vitality, energy, in better shape, more alert, productive
-Healthier lifestyles / knowledge about health
-Medical advances to slow the aging process
What kinds of major changes come in middle adulthood? What are the major losses and growths of aging into middle adulthood?
- balance of loss and growth in life:
loss in: physical density, energy, death of a parent, and preparing for retirement
growth: education, career, relationships
What types of physical changes occur in middle adulthood? How does our health change going into middle adulthood?
physical features deteriorate: skin is wrinkly, teeth yellow, fatter, etc susceptible to many diseases
Historically, what were the primary causes of death for people throughout human history? What are the main causes of death for middle adults in the present day?
Infectious diseases were primary cause of death throughout human history
Chronic illnesses now the main cause of death for middle-aged and elderly adults
How do we define stress? What kinds of effects does stress have on our lives? How does stress have that effect?
Stress is a feeling of emotional or physical tension.
Direct physical effect on our physiology and indirect effect on our behavior.
Stress has a bidirectional relationship with many chronic illnesses
What physiological changes happen in middle adulthood involving fertility (for men and women)? How does sexual behavior change going into middle adulthood?
declines in both men and women: climacteric
women: menopause and perimenopause
men: decline in hormones and ED
- sexual activity decreases
� What are the cognitive changes that occur in middle adulthood?
- information processing decreases
- memory is unknown to decrease
- working memory overload is possible
What is the primary conflict of middle adulthood according to Erikson's Psychosocial Stage theory? What are the healthy and unhealthy resolutions?
generavity vs stagnation
Desire to leave a legacy of themselves for the next generation. In essence, live on through others. Stagnation: Has done nothing for next generation.
healthy resolution: Helping younger generations develop and thrive
� What four needs do many adults strive for in finding meaning in life?
need for purpose, self efficacy, values and self worth
What does work look like for middle-aged adults? How often do middle-aged adults stay in the workforce and for how long?
Middle-age is a peak in career (position + earnings) Also many financial burdens Staying in the workforce: 80% of 45-to-54 year-olds 64% of 55-to-64 year-olds 50% of 65 and older Performance peaks in some ways during middle age Increased motivation,
Be able to describe how the Contemporary Life-Events Approach attempts to conceptualize and understand human development. What are the strengths and criticisms of this approach to human development?
life stage context, sociohistorical context, mediating variables, adaptation process
criticisms: Focuses too much on how much we change over time Middle adulthood is largely a time of stability in many ways Does not account for daily stressors and hassl
What does research suggest about the myths of "Empty Nest Syndrome" and "Midlife Crises"?
Many emerging adults who move out on their own think their parents might suffer from their absence "Empty Nest Syndrome" and missing adult child upon moving out Although true for some parents, opposite is true for most parents Majority report many impr
� How do our parent-child relationships change as we get older and our children move out?
Parent-child relationship tends to improve Lessens the friction of daily interactions More control over relationship
� How has the nature of grandparenting changed over time? What roles do grandparents play in the lives of grandchildren and families?
Supporting parent during family crises (e.g., divorce, illness, poverty) Providing childcare Listening, emotional support, and companionship for grandchildren Oftentimes less conflictual
� What do we mean by "intergenerational relationships" and middle-aged adults being "caught in-between" generations? How do we balance the struggle of caring for our growing children and our aging parents in middle adulthood?
Middle-aged adults often caught "in-between" generations Responsibilities for adolescent and young adult children Taking care of their own aging parents Juggling with career of their own
What age range does late adulthood cover?
� Be familiar with general statistics regarding age and life expectancy (e.g., maximum life expectancy, average life expectancy, demographics for age in the U.S.)
Maximum human lifespan seems to be 120 to 125 years In the U.S., average life expectancy is 79 years
This has shifted toward more equal numbers of people across age groups Improvements in medicine, nutrition, and lifestyle have increased life expectancy
� What are differences in life expectancy according to cultural factors, gender, and ethnicity?
African Americans: 73 years Latino Americans: 80 years Caucasian Americans: 78 years
Health attitudes, habits, lifestyles, occupation Men heavier smokers than women / cardiovascular disease, cancer, emphysema (lung disease) Higher rates of some risk b
What is the final conflict of human development according to Erikson's Theory that occurs in late adulthood? What are the healthy and unhealthy resolutions?
integrity vs despair: wisdom
healthy resolution: Feeling integrity about a life well spent
unhealthy: despair of living a life full of regrets
What do we mean by "review of life" in late adulthood?
Review of life is set in motion by acknowledgement of our own mortality and approaching death
What kinds of factors are related to longevity? Which help us live longer, which are associated with earlier mortality?
longevity: genetics, resistance to diseases, ability to cope, high number of negative life events, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and support systems
earlier mortality: high number of negative life events, easily susceptible to disease, low socioeconomic resou
What kinds of cognitive changes come about in late adulthood?
brain loses 5 to 10% of weight from age 20-90 ; neuron shrinkage
general slowing of brain
How does our body and health change physically throughout late adulthood? What are the primary causes of death in late adulthood?
changes in: height bc of bone loss, muscle loss bc of fat increase, slower movement, increase in injury, greater fatigue, decreases in visual acuity, depth perception, and hearing loss
primary causes of death: cardiovascular disease
What are major chronic illnesses that commonly are diagnosed in late adulthood (that we discussed in class)?
- Arthritis / Hypertension / Diabetes / Heart disease
What does the progression of Alzheimer's Disease look like? What kinds of symptoms are indicative of Alzheimer's? What treatment options do we have?
- form of dementia: Dementia refers to progressive loss of cognitive functions that often occurs in old age
- a brain disorder with progressive deterioration of attention, memory, and personality
- Alzheimer's accounts for about 50% of cases of dementia
What does work life look like for people in late adulthood? In what ways might working be good for people in late adulthood? In what ways might working be challenging? What are reasons for why some people choose to work into late adulthood?
In 2017 in the U.S. and remaining in the workforce 32% of 64to-69 y/o's 19% of 70-to-74 y/o's Various reasons: Financial, health, knowledge, purpose in life Job performance in late adulthood Generally report most satisfaction with job out of all age g
What does retirement look like for the average late adult in the U.S.? What factors are tied to how well a person adjusts to retirement in old age?
Average age of retirement 64 / men 62 for women Average working spends about 18 years in retirement These numbers can vary dramatically Historically, many people worked as long as they were able to do so (to support themselves) 1935 and introduction of
What are the three main patterns of aging experienced by older adults? What factors are related to successful aging?
normal, pathological, and successful
successful: Active lifestyle Mental stimulation Proper diet Flexibility Positive coping skills Perceived control over environment / self-efficacy Good social relationships and social support Absence of disease