13 - The Civil War (1861-65) & Reconstruction (1865-1877)

Election of 1860

Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.

Abraham Lincoln

American leader whose election in 1860 led the Southern States to begin seceding from the United States. President throughout the U.S. Civil War, during two terms office until his assassination after the war in 1865.

Confederate States of America

(1860) A group of eight Southern states that seceded from the Union, beginning with South Carolina, The Confederacy was led by Jefferson Davis; He eventually attacked the federally controlled Fort Sumter on April 12th 1861, marking the first battle of the

Jefferson Davis

An American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865.

Lincoln's 1st Inaugural

he rejected the right to secession but denied any intention of interfering with slavery in the states

Fort Sumter

Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War

Anaconda Plan

A key point in the Union's war strategy was encircling the South as an anaconda squeezes its prey. This plan entailed a naval blockade and the capture of the Mississippi River corridor.

Robert E. Lee

A former union general that joined the South after Virginia seceded. He was in charge of the Confederate Army, and led it to many victories.

Conscription (Draft)

law required men to serve in the military

Stonewall Jackson

general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War whose troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall (1824-1863)

Battle of Antietam

Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties

Battle Hymn of the Republic

An American patriotic hymn from the Civil War by Julia Ward Howe, who wrote it after a visit to an encampment of the Union Army. The tune is that of John Brown's Body.

Emancipation Proclamation

Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free

Battle of Gettysburg

1863, this three day battle was the bloodiest of the entire Civil War, ended in a Union victory, and is considered the turning point of the war

Gettysburg Address

A 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg.

Battle of Vicksburg

1863, Union gains control of Mississippi, confederacy split in two, Grant takes lead of Union armies, total war begins.

William Carney

first African American to be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his Acts of bravery on the Assault of Fort Wagner.

Ulysses S. Grant

An American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.

William T. Sherman

A successful Union general who implemented the tactic of "total war" in order to defeat the South. Led successful military campaign to conquer Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina.

Philip Bazaar

born in Chile was the first Hispanic-American to be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor in the assault of Fort Fisher.

Election of 1864

Election in which Lincoln defeated George McClellan and John C. Fremont, getting reelected for his second term as president.

Second Inaugural Address

the phrases "with malice toward none" and "charity for all" were used by Lincoln in his second inaugural address where Lincoln sought to assure the South that the North would be kind in reuniting the North and South after the war...

Appomattox Court House

Famous as the site of the Battle of Appomattox Courthouse, where the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee To Ulysses S. Grant took place on April 9, 1865

John Wilkes Booth

26 year old actor and Southern sympathizer, assassinator of Abraham Lincoln


the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union

Black Codes

Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War

Freedmen's Bureau

1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs

Radical Republicans

After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.

Civil Rights Bill

A bill passed by Congress in March 1866 as a measure against the Black Codes to reinforce black rights to citizenship. It was vetoed by Johnson and was later passed as the 14th Amendment.

13th Amendment

Abolished slavery in the United States

14th Amendment

declared that all persons born in the US were citizens and were entilted to equal rights and their rights wer protected by due process

15th Amendment

African American males are given the right to vote

Tenure of Office Act

1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet


A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states


A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners

Hiram Rhodes Revels

became the 1st African American elected to Congress.


A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.

New South

After the Civil War, southerners promoted a new vision for a self-sufficient southern economy built on modern capitalist values, industrial growth, and improved transportation. Henry Grady played an important role.

Homestead Act

1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.

Morrill Act

(1862) Federal law that gave land to western states to build agricultural and engineering colleges.

Transcontinental Railroad

Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west

Indian Wars

Ranged from colonial times to the Wounded Knee massacre and "closing" of the American frontier in 1890, generally resulted in the conquest of American Indians and their assimilation or forced relocation to Indian reservations

Dawes Act

1887 law that distributed reservation land to individual Native American owners

National Labor Union

1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers

Knights of Labor

1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed