Ch.9 Early Middle Ages (Europe)

large land mass that includes Europe and Asia

Eurasia

the shape and elevation of land in a region

topography

What is the boundary between Europe and Asia?

Ural Mountains

Describe the topography and climate of southern Europe (Spain, Italy, Greece...)

Many mountain ranges, such as Alps; high elevations; surrounds Mediterranean Sea; climate is warm and sunny; crops that can thrive in dry areas grown here; most people live along the sea due to the many peninsulas; many people seafarers and traders; raise

Describe the topography and climate of northern Europe (Britain, northern France, Germany...)

Part of vast Northern European Plain, very flat; location of Europe's major rivers; colder, wetter climate; freezing winter weather; covered in thick forests; great for farming

Describe the topography and climate of Scandinavia.

Very far north, rugged hills, low mountains, Europe's largest peninsula lots of fjords (little inlets/ peninsulas); freezing weather all year; much snow

Where are many of northern Europe's cities found?

Along rivers--provides transportation, rich soil, and trade

How does northern Europe's geography make it easy to invade?

Flat land and lack mountains (no natural barriers); its many rivers made it easy to reach inland cities

Why have so many different ways of life developed in Europe?

it has so many different types of landforms, waterways, and climates

Why is the time period in Europe from 500-1500 called the Middle Ages?

it falls between ancient and modern times

Why are the Middle Ages sometimes called medieval?

it's latin for "middle

In what parts of Europe was Christianity common at the beginning of the Middle Ages?

places that had been part of the Roman Empire such as Italy and Spain (southern Europe)

What two groups were sent out by the pope to spread Christianity during the Early Middle Ages?

missionaries and monks

What does saint mean?

a religious title given to people famous for their holiness

Why was St. Patrick important?

he converted the Irish to Christianity

How were medieval monks and missionaries different?

monks lived apart from society and provided services for the community and the poor; missionaries traveled to distant lands to convert people to Christianity

What were monasteries?

communities of monks; built all over Europe during Middle Ages

What was life like in a monastery?

strictly organized around rules intended to help monks live as good Christians; told how to dress, eat, etc.

Why was St. Benedict so important?

he created a code (strict rules) in the early 500s that many monasteries followed

What services did monks provide for their communities?

provided health care for the poor and needy, ran schools, copied books for those who could not read and

What changes did the franks make under Clovis?

converted to Christianity and became one of the strongest kingdoms in Europe

How did Charlemagne create such a large empire?

he spent much of his time at war and defeated many neighboring kingdoms

What was the importance of the pope crowing Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor?

title symbolized a return to greatness of the Roman Empire and the idea that God had selected Charlemagne to rule

What advancements did Charlemagne make in the area of education?

he built schools across Europe, brought in the best scholars; tried to learn how to read and write himself

Why were the Vikings so feared?

they did sneak attacks on inland cities using rivers in the north; they looted town and monasteries; they sold prisoners into slavery; their attacks were swift and savage; they destroyed farmland

In what way were Charlemagne's empire and the old Roman Empire similar?

size and territory controlled in Europe

What is feudalism?

a system of promises that governed relationships between lords and vassals

Why did feudalism begin?

after the Roman Empire fell, there was no government or army to protect people against invasion from the Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims; nobles had to defend their own lands, so they hired knights

Under the feudal system, what type of exchange took place between lords and vassals?

vassals promised to defend the lord in exchange for a fief (piece of land)

How could a vassal become a lord?

if he gained enough land, he could give some to other knights and become a lord

Who started feudalism in Europe?

the Franks

What duties did a lord have to his vassals, and what could a vassal do with the lord did not meet them?

send help when attacked, fairness (couldn't cheat), couldn't punish without reason; vassals could break all ties if lord didn't

Why were castles built?

to defend against attack

Who was William the Conqueror?

duke of Normandy (French noble) who conquered England, made himself king, and rewarded his knights with fiefs; therefore bringing feudalism to England

What was a manor?

a large estate owned by a knight or lord; included a large house or castle, pastures, fields, forests, village, and church

Explain the manor system

knight received fief from lords, but couldn't farm it (off fighting); peasants didn't have a place to grow food to survive; made a deal: peasants could live and farm on the knight's land (protected) , but had to give knights food they farmed

How did peasants differ from serfs?

Serfs were tied to the land on which they lived and could not leave without lord's permission; peasants were farmers who paid knights for the use of their land

What responsibilities did the lord have in running his manor?

punished misbehavior, settled disputes, and collected taxes

What role did women play in medieval society?

worked to support families, ran households, supervised servants, obeyed fathers and husbands, governed manors when husbands went to war

Who was Eleanor of Aquitaine?

powerful woman during Middle Ages; ruled her own territory in France, married king of England; her two sons became kings of England

Why did European towns begin to grow after 1000 A.D.?

Europe's population increased due to more food (better farming technology; and trade inceased

How did the growth of trade led to a decline in feudalism?

knights began to demand money for their services instead of land; serfs and peasants left their manors for towns

According to the code of chivalry, how were knights required to behave?

be brave and loyal, humble and modest, and kind and generous, especially with women

How were the feudal systems of Europe and Japan similar?

in both societies, lords gave land to people who promised to serve them and fight for them; land was farmed by peasants; warriors protected the lords' land

What was the main difference between medieval Europeans and Japanese?

Europeans were Christian, while Japanese blended Buddhism, Shinto, and Confucianism

How did subjects of European art and Japanese art differ during the Middle Ages?

European dealt mostly with religious themes; Japanese dealt with nature

Why did feudal systems develop in both Europe and Japan?

local lords needed the support of warriors to defend their lands in the absence of a strong government and order

Why did feudalism last longer in Japan--the 1800s--than in Europe?

Japan was isolated from other countries and banned guns