Contexts- SES & Culture

Environmental Context

Any event or condition outside the organism that affects or is affected by a person's development.

Social Comtext

The social relationships in which children are involved, the features of their particular society or culture, and the social institutions that affect the beliefs and behavior of parents and other caregivers.

Ecological Models of Children's Development

Urie Brofenbrenner
?Ecological Systems Theory
Robert LeVine
?Parental Behavior Model
Charles Super & Sara Harkness
?Developmental Niche
Margaret Spencer
?Phenomenological Variant of Ecological Systems (PVEST)

Overall theme of children's developmental theories

Children develop within interdependent environments

Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory

Children develop within "systems" that extend from the proximal physical environment to the distal society and culture.
�Each system exists in dynamic, mutually dependent relationships
�We must examine all inter- relationships among the subsystems to full

Environmental sub-system

?Microsystem: Relations between child and his/her immediate environment
?Mesosystem: Relations between aspects of child's lived-in environments or worlds
?Exosystem: Settings that do not include child, but affect child
?Macrosystem: Dominant ideologies, l


Culture is the accumulated knowledge of a people encoded in their language, physical artifacts, beliefs, values, customs and activities that have been passed down for generations

Bronfenbeenner's theory circular model

�>Outer circle: culture, ideologies, world, social class
�>Middle circle: extended family, parents' workplace, social services, school board, parents' friends, mass media
�>Inner circle: family, peers, school, park

Parental behavior model

Organic hardware - ecological firmware - cultural software
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Parental behavior

Organic hardware

Species specific: universal constraints

Ecological firmware

Population specific: socioeconomic conditions

Cultural software

Population specific: cultural models of parenthood

Parental behavior

At the population level: fertility, amount and kind of care, design of environments for early learning

Developmental niche model

Customs �>
Settings. �> child
Beliefs. �>

Cultural models

Cultural models are the ideas, beliefs, goals, and strategies shared by members of a particular cultural community that guide their actions and their interpretations of phenomenon

Individualism- collectivism theoretical framework

Individual Collectivist
Distal physical rels. Proximal, close
Physical rels
Self-sufficiency, Reciprocity