Alfano Final

What is the relationship between expressive language and literacy?

-There is a strong reciprocal relationship between expressive language and literacy
-Development of reading precedes the develop of writing in much the same way auditory comprehension precedes verbal expression

What are the 3 main categories of reading disabilities?

1. Dyslexia
2. Language-based learning disability (LLD)
3. Hyperlexia


unexpected reading failures"
-poor phonemic awareness
-will perform normal on expressive/receptive language tests & poor on reading

Language-based learning disability (LLD)

-deficiencies in all areas of a language
-perform poorly on both receptive & expressive language tests & reading tests


-ability to read words significantly above age expectations but has no comprehension
-symptom of autism

Other behaviors & characteristics of reading disability:

-poor phonological awareness
-poor word recognition
-problems with phonetic decoding
-difficulty attaching meaning to words

Define the descriptions of reading disabilities.

-Developmental dyslexia/specific reading disability
-Genetic; caused by atypical neurological development
-Primary symptom is poor phonemic awareness
-Child will perform WNL or higher on language tests but poorly on reading tests

What areas should be assessed when evaluating reading skills?

1. Phonological awareness
2. Word fluency
3. Narrative schema knowledge

Phonological awareness

p. 296
-ability to identify and blend together individual phonemes in words
-Includes: phonetic segmentation, phoneme synthesis, & sound comparison

Word fluency

-AKA rapid naming skills
-ability to name symbols, words, or pictures rapidly
-The discriminating skill is based on speed, not accuracy

Reading fluency

-Assessed in children who can read short paragraphs or longer reading passages
-Measure of the average number of words the child correctly reads per minute

Narrative schema knowledge

-Knowledge of story structure
-Requires ability to simultaneously sequence events, use appropriate vocabulary, follow rules of sentence structure and present a story in a cohesive and logical fashion
-Essential elements are known as story grammar

How do you assess narrative schema knowledge?

-Read short story to child and ask comprehension questions
-Ask child to make up their own story
-Ask child to retell a well-known child's story

ASD redefined.

-DSM-5 (2013) was significantly redefined
*Asperger disorder
*Childhood disintegrative disorder
*Rett syndrome
*Pervasive developmental disorder NOS
-Now ASD is considered "Autism Spectrum Disorder with varying degrees of severity

Current definition is based on:

-Social communication
-Fixated interests and repetitive behaviors

Characteristics of Social (Pragmatic) Disorder.

-Social verbal/nonverbal communication
-Acquiring and using spoken/written language
-Inappropriate responses in conversation
-Challenges have negative impact on relationships/academics/occupational perf.
-Onset is early childhood, even if not recognized u

What are the characteristics of fluency disorders?

-Silent Pauses
-Broken Words
-Incomplete phrases

What are the types of fluency disorders?

-Episodic Stress Reaction: typically stops when stress terminates
-Psychogenic stuttering: maladaptive solute to an acute psychological problem; sudden onset of rather severe stuttering
-Neurogenic stuttering: may occur following nervous system damage

Why is there a need for medical evaluation for voice disorders?

-therapy may prove detrimental in some situations
-certain etiologies may be life-threatening and need to be diagnosed as early as possible

What areas are assessed in voice evaluations?

-vocal habits
-respiratory support
-posture, tension, & behaviors

Define aphasia.

-Brain injury (occurs in the hemisphere of the brain that is dominate for language, typically the left)
-It is the destruction of cortical tissue.

Identify the causes of aphasia.

-Brain tumors
-Certain inflammatory processes
-Degenerative disease
-CVA (stroke or brain attack)

Identify the areas affected by aphasia.

-Receiving and decoding symbolic materials via auditory, visual, or tactile channels
-Central processes of meaning, word selection, and message formulation
-Expressing symbolic materials by means of speech, writing, or gesture

Know how to find a standard score and percentile rank on norms tables.


Know how to calculate chronological age.