Chapters 1 & 6: Humans and Sustainability & Human Population


meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

natural capital

Natural resources and natural services that keep us and other species alive and support our economies.

natural resources

Materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain

gross domestic product

The sum total of the value of all the goods and services produced in a nation

per capita GDP

GDP divided by the total population

per capita GDP PPP

A measure of the amount of goods and services that a country's average citizen could buy in the United States.

perpetual resource

Essentially inexhaustible resource on a human time scale because it is renewed continuously. Solar energy is an example.

renewable resource

A natural resource that can be replaced at the same rate at which the resource is consumed

nonrenewable resource

a resource produced in nature more slowly than it is consumed by humans

ecological footprint

the impact of a person or community on the environment, expressed as the amount of land required to sustain their use of natural resources.

point source pollution

pollution that comes from a specific site

nonpoint source pollution

pollution that comes from many sources rather than from a single, specific site

crude birth rate

The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.

crude death rate

The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.

replacement-level fertility rate

the average number of children that couples in a population must bear to replace themselves

total fertility rate

The average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years.

life expectancy

A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live

infant mortality rate

The percentage of children who die before their first birthday within a particular area or country.

baby boomers

The 78 million people born during the baby boom, following World War II and lasting until the early 1960s

prereproductive ages

organisms not mature enough to reproduce (0-14)

reproductive ages

old enough to reproduce (15-44)

post reproductive age

those too old to reproduce (45+)

demographic transition stages

Stage 1- Preindustrial society, birth and death rates are both high
Stage 2- Transitional- Improvements in healthcare, nutrition, sanitation, and wages cause death rate to drop
Stage 3- Industrial- Improvements in contraception, women;s rights, and a shif

exponential growth diagram

there is small growth for a while, and then the population begins to grow at a faster and faster rate

developing country population pyramid

developing countries have a large younger population, then the pyramid tapers off quickly as the population gets older because of high death rates

developed country pyramid

a developed country has equal or close to equal and lower birth and death rates, so the pyramid has a smaller base and a smaller mid range and upper range.

expanding rapidly pyramid

when there is a high population in the prereproductive age, population growth is high because they soon reproduce more and more children

stable pyramid

A population pyramid showing an unchanging pattern of fertility and mortality.

declining pyramid

birth rates are lower than death rates so the pyramid is wider at the top with the older, longer surviving generation, and smaller at the bottom

demographic transition graph

there are 4 stages a country goes through to become developed and are defined by population trends

fertility rate vs gross domestic product

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a higher GDP means lower fertility rate because economic properity is corelated with bett