Corrections Exam 2

a small number of offenders are responsible for a disproportionate number of violent and property crimes

The concept of selective incapacitation rests on the idea that:


According to the author, in a retributive justice model those who commit a particular crime should be punished:


With reference to time, rehabilitation is:


Among the stated goals of the correctional process as mentioned by the authors, which of the following does not overlap with the objectives of the other purposes?

use of community justice tactics to deter the offender

According to Herbert Packer, which of the following is NOT an element of punishment?


According to Clear, Cole, and Reisig, _____ is the most visible penalty imposed by the criminal justice system.

All of these:
plea-bargaining pressures
educational attainment

Experts usually cite _____ as reasons wrongful convictions occur.


Probationary sentences emphasize guidance and _____ in the community.

Minnesota Sentencing Guideline

The most notably used sentencing guidelines used throughout the U.S. is the


_____ asserts that a person who has infringed the rights of others deserves to be penalized or punished.


According to the concept of _____, offenders are returned to society once they are cured.

general deterrence

Punishment of criminals that is intended to be an example to the public and to discourage the commission of offenses by others is known as:

restorative justice

Punishment designed to repair damage to both victim and community is:


Since the _____, retribution as a justification for the criminal sanction has aroused new interest.

all of these:
reduce disparity in sentencing for similar offenses
increase and decrease punishments for certain offenders and offenses
reduce prison overcrowding

Sentencing guidelines are designed to:

indeterminate sentencing scheme

Legislatures concerned with the correctional goal of treatment prescribe a(n):

intermediate sanctions

Punishments less severe than prison but more restrictive than traditional probation are:


Judges may go outside of the sentencing guidelines if aggravating or _____ circumstances exist however they must provide a written explanation for this.


In the Booker decision, the justices said that sentencing guidelines are:

sentencing disparity

Divergence in the lengths and types of sentences imposed for the same crime or crimes of comparable seriousness when no reasonable justification can be discerned is:


According to the author, rehabilitation is oriented solely toward the offender and does not imply any consistent relationship between the severity of the punishment and the gravity of the crime.


Most Western democracies impose the death penalty.


Recent knowledge of the effectiveness of deterrence shows that social science is able to measure the effects of various punishments.


Incapacitation focuses on characteristics of the offenders instead of characteristics of the victims.


As soon as a prisoner goes free, his/her punishment is over and done with.


Overall, jail population sizes tend to be:

Local offender assistance programs are usually operated by community self-help volunteers

Which of the following pressures are not experienced by the local jail?

to make sure those accused of a crime would show up for their trials.

According to the text, the central purpose of the early jail was:

entry point into

Jails are the _____ the criminal justice system.

a fee system

A system where jail operations are funded by a set amount paid for each prisoner held per day is:


The nation has just over _____ jails.

release on recognizance (ROR)

By far the most successful pretrial release program is:

It is typically employed only against property offenders

Which statement is not an argument made towards the subject of preventive detention?

Many offenders cannot be effectively dealt with by the formal criminal justice system

Which statement is not an argument made in favor of pretrial diversion?


_____ are direct descendants of 12th century English feudal practices


Almost 60% of America's jails _____ prisoners for at least some of the medical care they receive


Violence, rape, and health problems are direct and immediate consequence of:

locally-elected officials

Jails are administered by:


Therapeutic justice is a philosophy of reorienting the jail experience from being mostly punitive to being mostly:

West and South

The jail rate is highest in the:

7 to 8 million

At least _____ people are detained in a jail at some time during the year.

awaiting trial

More than half of all jail occupants are:


Recently, there has been a major emphasis on programs to _____ offenders awaiting trial

African Americans

Who is less likely to be released on their own recognizance?


Many, if not most, defendants are:


Most jails in the United States hold fewer than 50 people


Many jails in this country have no viable rehabilitative programs, and have very few trained personnel to deal with the mental health needs of most offenders.


The average delay between arrest and sentencing is more than six months for inmates.


One of the problems for pretrial detainees is the way they look in court


Pretrial detainees need access to legal assistance.

162 probationers per officer

What is the average caseload for probation officers in New York City?

John Augustus

Which of the following was the first person to provide bail for defendants under the authority of the Boston Police Court in 1841?

first-time offenders

Probation was originally used mainly for:

white and male

The majority of probationers in the United States are:


_____ conditions provide constraints on some probationers to increase the restrictiveness of probation including fines, community service, and restitution.


______ is a drug that inhibits drinking.


_____ conditions provide constraints on some probationers to force them to deal with a significant problem and need such as substance abuse.

does not receive

In many states the defense _____ a copy of the PSI report.


_____ conditions provide constraints on probationers including reporting to the probation office, change of address, employment, and not leaving a jurisdiction.

Williams v. New York

In what case did the Supreme Court rule that the defendant does not have a right to receive a copy of the presentence investigation report?

the responsibilities of enforcing the law and helping the offender simultaneously

A probation officer faces role conflict every day. This conflict focuses around:

Both the probationer completes the period of probation and the probationer commits some misbehavior that warrants the probation be terminated.

In which of the following ways may probation be terminated?

Home detention

Which of the following was not an innovation initially developed by John Augustus?

all of these
centralized or decentralized
administered by judiciary or executive branch
combined with parole services

The organization of probation is:

discriminated in favor of the upper social classes

Between 1200 and 1827, English law:


Recognizance was first used in court to recognize a formally recorded _____ to perform some act entered by a judge to permit an offender to live in the community

Specialization of

_____ supervision will likely continue to grow in popularity


Recent interest in the problem of substance abuse has increased the attention given to _____ affected by drugs and alcohol.

drug testing

Project HOPE is a specialized approach which identifies the high-risk, chronic violator for close supervision augmented by regular ______

ankle bracelets

According to the authors, there are now some technological advances in probation to monitor the actions of probations. This includes:


During the sentencing phase of a revocation hearing, the judge decides whether to impose a term of incarceration and if so, for how long.


60% of probation sentences are received directly from the judge.


The law enforcer role of probation focuses on surveillance and control of the offender.


PSIs disallow victim impact statements describing their emotional and financial losses due to the offender's action.


Probation officers rely upon their authority because they have little substantive power.