Know the pro arguments to paying of the National debts as proposed by Hamilton.
-Confederation debt be refunded at face value.
-Holders of depreciated Confederation securities could turn them in for new interest bearing bonds.
-Purpose was to establish and strengthen U.S. credit and therefore creating foreign and domestic confi
Know the con arguments to paying of the National debts as proposed by Hamilton.
-Would create a moneyed aristocracy commercial and harmful to agriculture
-Would dangerously enlarge powers of national govt. at expense of states.
-Unfairly benefit speculators.
-Most southern sates had liquidated their war debts, like South Caroli
Why did Hamilton support establishing a national bank?
Believed it would:
a. create a sound national currency
b. strengthen confidence in financial integrity of U.S.
c. permit and aid stable economic growth
Why did Jefferson and Madison oppose the bank?
argued that Bank was unconstitutional and not among powers awarded by the Constitution - said it wasn't "necessary" also called it a financial octopus and monopoly that would destroy the state banks - therefore weakening the states.
Be able to compare and contrast the Federalists and Republican parties using the chart given in class.
Federalists (republican) party: Founded by Alexander hamilton-
(1) Represented commercial middle class, lawyers, Anglican and Congregational clergymen, doctors, professors, nationalists
(2) Wanted a diversified economy, government assistance to industry,
Who was Citizen Genet and how did he almost get the U.S. into a war.
He was a French statesman who came to America in search of monetary aid. He asked for private donations to France and recruited American privateers (pirates plundering for another country).
What was Jay's treaty supposed to get for the U.S. and what were the actual results?
TO SECURE EVACUATION OF NORTHWEST TERRITORY, win recognition of American NEUTRAL RIGHTS, end impressments, secure favorable commercial treaty, compensation for slaves - reparations to American shippers.
1. Jay was compromised by Hamilton
What was the Whiskey Rebellion? How did it end? and what was its significance?
Farmers of western Pennsylvania objected to tax on whiskey by burning tax collectors homes ect. Washington orders in militia (GENERAL HENRY LEE - 20 arrested, 2 convicted but pardoned by Washington)
first serious challenge to Federal law. This did not end
What were the major provisions of Pinckney's Treaty?
Spain decides to improve relations with the U.S.
Spain recognized 31 degrees parallel as southern boundary of U.S.
Recognized Mississippi as western boundary.
Agreed to U.S. Navigation rights on Mississippi and provided New Orleans as PORT OF DEPOSIT for
What were the major points of Washington's Farewell address?
>Warned against sectional interests and antagonisms - failed to see the loyal opposition party's purpose
> Deplored the rise of political factions
> Urged the maintenance of public credit of U.S.
> Cautioned against U.S. entering into permanent alliances
What was unusual about Adam's election as president and what was unusual about Jefferson's election as vice-president in 1796?
John Adams: Adams defeated his rival, Thomas Jefferson, by a narrow three vote margin of 71 to 68. He served as President for only one term. Jefferson's election as vice pres- The only one in which a president and vice president were elected from opposing
What was the XYZ affair and what were some of the results of the XYZ affair?
With assumption of office, relation's with France were strained and verged on open warfare. Spring of 1797 Adams sends CHARLES C. PINCKNEY, JOHN MARSHALL and ELBRIDGE GERRY to France to negotiate treaty of friendship and commerce.
Who wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions and why and what was their significance?
(1798) These resolutions were passed by the legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 and were authored by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, respectively.
What were some factors that contributed to Jefferson's election as President in 1800?
Federalists attacked Jefferson as an un-Christian deist whose sympathy for the French Revolution would bring similar bloodshed and chaos to the United States. On the other side, the Democratic-Republicans denounced the strong centralization of federal pow
What were the results of Republican efforts to impeach Federal Judges?
1803, impeachment campaign, John Pickering impeached (insane/alcoholic)
Next picked Samuel Chase- Associate Justice of Supreme Court- failed
Supreme court remains free
What were the circumstances surrounding the Louisiana Purchase?
Napoleon forces Spain to cede Louisiana by treaty of San Ildefonso, sends a 20,000 man army to Haiti (Toussaint L'overture) that wipes out the French. Robert R. Livingston sent by James Madison to purchase new orleans or Florida. Napoleon needs money, Lou
Why did Jefferson hesitate to sign the Louisiana Purchase treaty?
Jefferson said that it was not in the constitution so he felt like he could not do it. He was one who felt like he had to go by the rules.
What was the Essex Junto? What did it try to do during Jefferson's administration? What was its connection with Aaron Burr?
New England's merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Great Britain. Critics of the war were mainly Federalists who represented New England. The Essex Junto was a group of extreme Federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated New Eng
What was the Burr conspiracy in the west.
Burr's attempt to take over Louisiana and secede from the nation (take mexico from spanish control and found a new nation); established the definition of treason and Burr was not found guilty because he never actually took up arms (not enough evidence)
How and why did the duel between Burr and Hamilton occur?
They were enemies from the get go
What was the biggest problem in Jefferson's second administration?
Aarron Burr and the Essex Junto
What section/s of the country supported the War of 1812 & what section/s opposed it?
What were the causes of the War of 1812?
1. Britain's seizure of American ships and impressment of sailors.
2. America's resentment of Britain.
3. American belief that British were arming Native Americans and inciting them to riot.
4. American "War Hawks" wanting to annex Florida and Canada.
What was the greatest humiliation to the U.S. in the War of 1812?
1. In August 1814, British troops landed in the Chesapeake Bay area,
dispersed 6,000 panicked Americans at Bladensburg, and proceeded to
enter Washington D.C. and burn most of the buildings there.
2. At Baltimore, another British fleet arrived but was bea
What were the terms of the treaty (and its name) ending the War of 1812?
Treaty of Ghent
This peace treaty was signed in Belgium and took weeks for the news of the treaty to get to the United States. This Treaty was to end the War between the United States and Great Britain. The terms included all conquered territory was to be
What was the Hartford Convention? What effects did it have on the Federalist Party? What happened there and what did they propose?
Represented the climax of New England's disaffection with "Mr.Madison's War"
Proposed 7 constitutional amendments which were designed to limit the Federalist party (the south) influence: abolishing the counting of slaves in apportioning state representati
What was the effect of the War of 1812 on American nationalism?
Madison- moves further to the Federalist views, supports the 2nd bank of the U.S. , supports internal improvement, supports increase in the size of the army and navy, supports funds for West Point.
What was Madison's attitude toward a Bank of the U.S. before the War of 1812 and how did it change after the War?
Before: Madison argued that Bank was unconstitutional and not among powers awarded by the Constitution - said it wasn't "necessary"
a. Banking was the preserve of the states
b. Article 1 Section 8 - Congress to "make all laws which shall be necessary and
What was unusual about Monroe's election as President in 1820?
Madison has monroe nominated - Daniel D. Tompkins as Vice President
What was the "era of good feelings?
name for President Monroe's two terms: period of strong nationalism, economic growth, territorial expansion, and fewer partisan conflicts
What happened and why did Jackson invade Florida during Monroe's administration, what were the results?
General Jackson concluded that it was necessary for the United States to invade Spanish territory and forcibly take control of Pensacola, thereby dispersing (or killing) the Indians gathered there. On May 28, 1818, he did just that. This led to America to
Why was there controversy (and who started it) over admitting Missouri as a slave state? How did it begin and how did it end?
XI. Slavery and the Sectional Balance
1. Sectional tensions between the North and the South came to a boil when Missouri wanted to
become a slave state.
2. Although it met all the requirements of becoming a state, the House
of Representatives stymied the
Worcester vs. Georgia
Began on February 20th of 1832. The case was filed by Worcester who claimed that his family's forced removal was a violation of his constitutional rights. He believed the state of Georgia over-stepped their boundaries, for they did not maintain jurisdicti
McCulloch vs. Maryland
The Second Bank of the United States was established pursuant to an 1816 act of Congress. McCulloch (D), the cashier of the Baltimore branch of the Bank of the United States, issued bank notes without complying with the Maryland law. Maryland sued McCullo
Marbury vs. Madison.
(1803) the Supreme Court announced for the first time the principle that a court may declare an act of Congress void if it is inconsistent with the Constitution. William Marbury had been appointed a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia in the
What were the specific points of the Monroe Doctrine? How did it come about?
The main diplomatic achievements of the period between the end of the war of 1812 and the coming civil war concerned American boundaries and the resumption of trade with its old enemy, Great Britain. The Monroe Doctrine expressed the idea that the America
What was the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair? The Embargo Act?
1807 - The American ship, Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Brita
How did the Louisiana Purchase come about?
The Americans thought that Napoleon might withdraw the offer at any time, preventing the United States from acquiring New Orleans
What were the circumstances surrounding the Panic of 1819?
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of Europena demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
Who was Daniel Boone and state did he help to settle?
the pioneer who explored Kentucky and marked the Wilderness Road
What was the nickname given to a group of young southern and western congressmen who wanted war with Great Britain while Madison was President
What diplomatic agreement ended naval competition of the Great Lakes by limiting naval forces there (know the name)
What diplomatic agreement established the boundary between U.S. and Canada at the 49 and provided for joint occupation of Oregon (know the name)
Oregon Treaty of 1846
What was the "firebell in the night" and who coined that phrase?
metaphor for the compromise
- Thomas Jefferson
In the Webster-Hayne Debate, Robert Y. Hayne argued what position and Daniel Webster argued what position?
An argument between Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne, about the issue states' rights versus national power. Webster said that Hayne was a challenge to the integrity of the Union. Hayne responded with a defense of the theory of nullification. Webster then s
What was the Peggy Eaton affair all about and what were the results?
Social scandal; John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake before her husband died in 1828; cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton; Jackson
What were the Alien Sedition Acts? Know specific acts and what they did, and what were the results?
They were four bills that the Federalist passed in 1798 in preparation for an anticipated war with France.
The four bills were: Alien Enemies Act- stated that any citizen from foreign country that posed a threat to national security, if found guilty will
What was John C. Calhoun's view of nullification and what state while Jackson was President tried to use this idea, and what were the results?
What was the Force Bill?
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect dutie
American naval officer notable for his heroism in the Barbary Wars and the War of 1812; first American celebrated as a nation military hero who had not fought in the American Revolution.
FRANCIS SCOTT KEY
United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812; wrote "The Star Spangled Banner
OLIVER H. PERRY
Served in the war of 1812 and earned the title of "Hero of Lake Erie" for leading American forces in a decisive naval victory at the Battle of Lake Erie.
New York Congressman, James Tallmadge proposed two amendments to the statehood bill. First: slaves born in Missouri are free at age 25. Second: no slaves could be brought into Missouri after it is a state.
Thomas Jefferson's personal secretary, who Jefferson sent to lead the exhibition to investigate Indian cultures, collect plants and animals, and chart the geography of the West.
The sixteen year old Indian women married to a French trapper. A guide and interpreter on the Lewis and Clark mission. Because of her and her baby, Lewis and Clark seemed peaceful to the other Indians.
An American explorer/officer who led the Pike Expedition (which began in July 15, 1806) to explore the southern parts of the Louisiana Purchase. Pike Peaks in Colorado is named after him, and he fought in the battle in 1812 as an American brigadier.
The corrupt military governor of Louisiana Territory; made an allegiance with Burr to separate the western part of the United States from the East and expand their new confederacy with invasions of Spanish-controlled Mexico and Florida.
What was the Independent Treasury and what was Martin Van Buren attitude toward it?
Also known as "Subtreasury," was a system in which govt. funds would be placed in an independent treasury in Washington and in subtreasuries. This way no private banks would have the government's money or name to use as a basis for speculation. Van Buren
What was Andrew Jackson's attitude toward the 2nd Bank of the United States and what does he do about it? What were "Pet Banks".
He wanted to crush the 2nd bank, he pushed to end it during the start of a financial crisis.
Pet banks- is a pejorative term for state banks selected by the U.S. Department of Treasury to receive surplus government funds in 1833.
Who was Osceola and what did he try to do? What happened to him?
Seminole leader who resisted the removal of his people from Florida in the 1830s. He died under suspicious circumstances after being tricked into surrendering (1837).
What was the Distribution Act, and what did it do?
Pressured by Henry Clay, the government distributed the surplus from selling western lands among the states as loans. Surplus was proportionately divided according to each state's representation in the two houses of Congress
Who was Jackson's first Vice President and who was his second vice president and why?
1st:John C. Calhoun, became the first vice president to resign his position in December 1832; he then served in the U.S. Senate from 1832 to 1843. During his years in the Senate, he ceased to be a nationalist and became a staunch sectionalist and outspoke
What were some of Andrew Jackson's positive contributions to his country and what were some of his negative contributions according to the textbook.
Positive: was a warrior at the battle of New Orleans
Negative: forced relocation of Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi
What was the Battle of Tippecanoe and who was involved and what was its significance?
Americans v. Shawnee Indians. led by governor William Henry Harrison, the Americans defeated the Shawnee's and Tecumseh in the Indiana Territory.
Who was Nicholas Biddle and what did he do?
Was an American financier who served as the third and last president of the Second Bank of the United States.
What happened in the court case Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, and what did Andrew Jackson do?
In this court case in 1831, the Cherokees fought for defense against the Indian Removal Act and against the Georgia Legislature's nullification of Cherokee laws. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokee had "an unquestionable right" to their la
What and when was the Specie Circular and what did it call for?
A United States presidential executive order issued by President Andrew Jackson in 1836 pursuant to the Coinage Act and carried out by his successor, President Martin Van Buren. It required payment for government land to be in gold and silver.
What caused Jefferson's problems with the Barbary States and what was the outcome?
The pirates of the Barbary states on the North Coast of Africa that made a national industry of plundering and holding for ransom merchant ships sailing into the Mediterranean. The conflict with these people led Jefferson to, against his pacifist will, to
Who were the main supporters of the tariff of 1816 and who opposed it and why do they reverse their support for later tariffs?
Strongly supported by West, Middle States but opposed in North (WEBSTER) and South (CALHOUN)
Because the tariff would eventually become a sectional issue, with manufactures, wool processors, and food, sugar, and hemp growers favoring higher tariffs while
According to your textbook, what almost undid the Missouri Compromise?
It violated the requirements of Article IV, Section 2, of the federal Constitution: "The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the Several States." Free Blacks were already citizens of many states, includ
According to your textbook, what caused the Panic of 1819?
The occasion for the panic was the sudden collapse of cotton prices after British textile mills spurned high-priced American cotton in favor of cheaper East Indian cotton. The collapse of cotton prices set off a decline in the demand for other American go
Who said: "Our Union�It must be preserved!
John C. Calhoun
Who said: "Liberty and Union, Now and forever, one and inseparable.
What was the Tariff of Abominations and why was it called that and what brought it about?
Nullification Crisis, 1828-1833, 1828, High protective tariff of 45% passed because New England mills charged the British were selling textile goods at below market prices to drive their American competitors out of business.
� Southern planters feared the
What were Midnight Judges and how did Jefferson get rid of them?
A few weeks before his term as president was over, John Adams signed into law the Judiciary Act of 1801, which reorganized the federal court system. The "midnight judges" were selected by President John Adams, who signed appointments up until midnight on
What was the "Corrupt Bargain"?
Henry Clay had guaranteed John Quincy Adams presidency in the 1824 election which in return Adams named Clay as his secretary of state, a position that had been the stepping-stone to the presidency for the previous four executives. Andrew Jackson caught w
What was the American System?
The policy of promoting industry in the U.S. by adoption of a high protective tariff and of developing internal improvements by the federal government (as advocated by Henry Clay from 1816 to 1828)