Chapter 11 Efferent Division: Autonomic and Somatic Motor Control

Neurons in the parasympathetic pathway use which of the following neurotransmitters?

Acetylcholine

Which of the following is the type of adrenergic receptor found in most sympathetic target tissues?

alpha 1

Which of these characteristics is the same in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches for the vast majority of neurons?

Preganglionic neurotransmitter

Which of the following is a modified sympathetic ganglion?

Adrenal medulla

Which of these is an effect of the parasympathetic nervous system?

Airway constriction

The diameter of blood vessels varies under the control of ______ neurons, which cause the diameter to ______.

sympathetic; either increase or decrease, depending upon the type of receptor present

The division of the efferent nervous system that controls smooth and cardiac muscles and many glands is the ____ division.

Autonomic

The motor neurons primarily associated with the fight-or-flight response are the _____ neurons.

sympathetic

These neurons secrete the neurotransmitter aceltycholine onto their targets

somatic motor and parasympathetic motor

The two main types of acetylcholine receptor are known as

nicotinic and muscarinic

The neurotransmitter that controls skeletal muscle causes which of the following?

muscle contraction

The target tissue(s) of somatic motor neurons is/are ______.

skeletal muscle

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor administration is a common treatment for myasthenia gravis. Why would this help alleviate some of the symptoms of this autoimmune disease?

AChE inhibition would delay the removal of ACh from the synaptic cleft

Nicotine is thought to cause approximately ______ deaths per year, worldwide.

5,000,000

The two division of the efferent side of the peripheral nervous system are

somatic motor neurons and autonomic neurons

The division of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for intense levels of activity and stress is the

sympathetic division

Which statements apply to the parasympathetic division of the nervous system?

It is dominant during "resting and digesting" and its ganglia are nearby, on or near the target organs.

Nicotine enhances the release of _______ in the brain.

dopamine

Which area is NOT normally considered to be an autonomic control center?

amygdala

Antagonistic control of efferent output is the typical of the ____ divison

autonomic

The presence of two peripheral efferent neurons in a pathway is typical of the _____ division.

autonomic

The adrenal medulla is important to the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system because

it is a source of catecholamines, it is considered a modified sympathetic ganglion, and it releases apinephrine and norepinephrine directly into the blood.

Each of these statements is true except one, Identify the exception.

Activation of a receptors opens Na+ channels in the membrane

Which of the following has its cell body in the ganglion?

postganglionic neuron

Which area(s) of the brain exerts control over the autonomic nervous system?

cerebrum, hypothalumus, pons, medulla

Which functions are controlled through the autonomic nervous system?

blood pressure, heart rate, water balance, temperature regulation

Sweat glands contain

cholinergic receptors

Increased parasympathetic stimulation

increase gastric motility

Dual innervation" refers to an organ receiving

both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves

Parasympathetic tissue receptor

cholinergic muscarinic receptor

Target receptor for preganglionic neurons

cholinergic nicotinic receptor

Released by all autonomic preganglionic neurons

acetylcholine

Primary sympathetic neurotransmiter

norepinephrine

Sympathetic tissue receptor

adrenergic receptor

The neural pathway from the spinal cord to the target tissue has two neurons, the preganglionic neuron and the postganglionic neuron

true for both divisons; sympathetic and parasympathetic division

Most preganglionic neurons originate in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord.

True only for the sympathetic division

The cell bodies of preganglionic neurons are found either in the brain stem or in the sacral region of the spinal cord.

True for only the parasympathetic division

Inside the ganglia are interneurons, which modulate messages.

True for both divisions

The neurotransmitter acetycholine is released by neurons at the neurotransmitter synapse.

True only for the the parasympathetic division

The ganglia are found in a chain that runs close to the spinal cord or along the descending aorta.

True only for the sympathetic division.

It releases nonepinephrine at the neuroeffector synapse.

True for the sympathetic division

It contains cholinergic neurons.

True for both divisions

The adrenal medulla is closely allied with this system.

True only for the sympathetic division

On average, one preganglionic neuron synapses with eight or nine postganglionic neurons, each innervating a different target.

True for both divisions

It is important during stress or emergencies (fight-or-flight)

True only for the sympathetic division.

It dominates during resting-and-digesting activities.

True only for parsympathetic division

The two types of cholinergic receptors are

nicotinic and muscarinic

Cholinergic receptors respond to the neurotransmitter

acetylcholine

Cholinergic nicotinic receptors are found in the _____ of the ANS.

autonomic ganglia

Cholinergic muscarinic receptors are found at the _____ in the ANS.

parasympathetic neuroeffector junctions

The ______ is the major source of parasympathetic output.

vagus nerve

_____ are swelling that contain vesicles filled with neurotransmitters.

Varicosities

Autonomic neurotransmitters are synthesized in the

axon

The two varieties of adrenergic receptors are

alpha and beta

The signal molecule ____ elicits the stronger response from alpha receptors.

norepinephrine

_______ postganglionic sympathetic neurons secrete ______ onto their target cells.

Most, norepinephrine

The drug Chantix, which treats nicotinic addiction, is an ____ for the nicotinic receptor.

agonist

Pupil dilation

sympathetic agonist

Salivation

parasympathetic agonist

Decreased activity in digestive tract

sympathetic agonist

Fat breakdown

sympathetic agonist

Blocks secretion of pancreatic enzymes

parasympathetic antagonist

The motor end plate is

A folded area of muscle cell membrane with ACh receptors clustered at the top of each fold.