HR Test 2

Program Design

the organization and coordination of training

Program design must be carefully designed to

ensure maximum learning

Program design directly influcences

knowledge and skill aquisition

Three phases of program design

pre-training, the learning event, and post training


involves preparing and motivating trainees to attend training, it ensures the work environment supports learning and transfer of training

The learning event

involves preparing instruction and the physical environment


encourage learners to apply what they learned to their work

Considerations for designing effective programs

training site, trainer, course design, curriculum road map, is it conductive to learning, vendors or consultants, is it good for transfer

a good training site has/is

comfortable, accessible, quiet, private, free from interruptions, sufficient space for trainees to move around easily, offers enough room for trainees to have adequate work space, good visibility

Training rooms should be able to

accommodate a wide variety of activities and instructor-learner, learner-learner, and learner-content interactions

Conference type seating

appropriate for total group discussions with no small group interactions

horseshoe seating

appropriate for both presentation and total group instruciton

classroom type seating

appropriate when lecture and audiovisual presentations are primary methods

fan type seating

trainees can easily switch from listening to practicing in groups

Seating arrangements

conference, horseshoe, classroom, fan

Choosing trainers

trainers need to be both skilled in the subject matter at hand and in program function

Choosing experts as trainers

may have a tendency to use more abstract and advanced concepts that may confuse trainees

if managers or employees are trainers

it can be rewarding to be recognized by the company or if leading training is linked to their development

preparation of materials

know the content well, use mental and physical rehearsal to build confidence, observe master trainers to get new ideas, design training from audience perspective

Different generations who could be in training

traditionalists, boomers, gen Xers, millennials


prefer standard training room, an orderly environment, and do not like being put on the spot

Baby boomers

prefer classroom learning, interactive activities and materials that provide an overview and means to access more detailed information

Gen Xers

prefer a self directed learning environment that includes technology delivered methods


like to learn by working along and helping others to learn; they prefer blended learning

Gen Z

prefer entertaining training activities, they respond well to training that is interactive and creative.

For groups that include a mix of generations

provide a learning environment that can benefit all learners

consider language and cultural differences

training content should include language, familiar names and examples audiences can relate to, consider cultural norms that might affect activities and interactions

pre training motivation

communicate prupose of training, assign pre work, managers should encourage attendance and set expectations for learning

Provide an overview

give big picture, concept map, course objectives/timeline

Help trainees retain and recall content

chunk learning into short sessions of no longer than 20 mins, incorporate pneumatics and metaphors, novelty helps commit learning to memory, microlearning


uses videos, checklists, diagrams, or visuals to provide trainees with new meaningful content, quiz to check learning

classroom management

monitor room for extra chairs, overflowing trash cans, and materials left from previous sessions

Interacting with trainees

communicate topics to be covered, the learning approach, and exceptions, be cognizant of the self fulfilling prophecy, facilitate discussion from different parts of the room


is key to engaging training and facilitating learning


can be an effective means to engage trainees but need to be planned, should be used to brainstorm ideas and solutions

managing group dynamics

arrange groups with individuals of different expertise, group dynamics can be altered by changing learners positions in the room


an organized program of study designed to meet a complex learning objective

course or program

covers more specific learning objectives and addresses a more limited number of competencies

curriculum road map

shows all courses in curriculum, paths that learners can take, sequences in which course have to be completed

when choosing if vendor or consultant is right

RFP outlines type of service and references needed, number of employees to be trained, funding for project, follow up process to determine level of satisfaction and service, expected completion date

near transfer

applying learned capabilities exactly as taught in training

far transfer

applying learned capabilities to a work environment that is not identical to training

promoting near transfer

use standardized procedures, processes, and checklists, explain why procedures should be preformed exactly

promoting far transfer

teach general concepts, broad principles, and key behaviors, focus on general principles that apply to a number of situations, provide a list of prompts and questions to help trigger self reflection and questions

self management training

discuss relapses, set transfer and performance goals, identify obstacles, generate strategies to overcome obstacles,

levels of manager support

acceptance and encouragement of training, participation in training, reinforcement, practice, teaching

peer support

transfer can be enhanced by a support network among trainees, peers can share successes, challenges, and feedback

evaluation measures

a programs strengths and weaknesses, what features of training matter, which trainees benefited, gather information for marketing training, financial costs and benefits

formative evaluation

evaluation that takes place during program design, helps to ensure training is organized, runs smoothly, and that trainees are satisfied

summative evaluation

evaluation conducted after instruction to determine if training has lead to desirable outcomes

evaluation process

1. needs assessment 2. develop measurable learning objectives and analyze transfer 3. develop outcome measures 4. choose evaluation strategy 5. plan and execute the evaluation

Kirkpatrick's model

reactions, learning and cognitive outcomes, behavior and skill based outcomes, results, ROI

Reaction outcomes

trainees perceptions of training experience relating to content, facilities, trainer, and methods

Learning and cognitive outcomes

relate to familiarity with information, including principles, facts, techniques, procedures, and processes, typically measured via paper and pencil tests

Behavior and skill based outcomes

relate to proficiency with technical skills, motor skills, and behavior, include learning and transfer

Affective outcomes

include attitudes and motivation often measured via survey


did training have an impact on meaningful business outcomes?


the extent to which training outcomes are related to the learned capabilities emphasized in the program


the inclusion of inappropriate or irrelevant outcomes


refers to the omission of important information


the extent to which outcomes can be measured consistently over time


the extent to which measured performance reflects a true difference, a test that is too easy may not discriminate


the extent to which outcomes can be easily measured and collected

which training should be collected

ones that are linked to overall business strats

threats to validity

factors that will lead an evaluator to question the results

internal valididty

the believability of the study ie are the results due to the training program and not some other factor

external validity

is the generalizability of the evaluation results to other groups and situations

methods to control threats to validity

use pretests and post tests, use control group, random assignment of employees to control and training groups

types of evaluation design

post test only, pretest posttest, pretest posttest with comparison group, times series, soloman four group

Post test only

only collecting post training outcomes, appropriate when trainees can be expected to have a similar level of proficiency prior to training strengthened with control group

pretest posttest

collects both pre and post training outcomes to determine if a change has occurred

pretest posttest control group design

same as pretest posttest but compared to a group who received no training

Time series

involves collecting measures at periodic intervals pre and post training, strength in design can be improved by using reversal which refers to a time period when participants no longer receive training

Solomon four group

combines pretest posttest comparison group design and posttest only control group design

Solomon four groups

1. pretest, treatment, post test
2. pre test, no treatment, post test
3. no pre test, treatment post test
4. no pretest, no treatment, post test

when evaluation may not be neccessary

time constraints, managers and trainees lack expertise, the company views training as an investment from which it expects little or no return

when evaluation is neccessary

results can be used to change program, training is ongoing, training involves multiple classes and a large number of trainees, to show training worked, there is sufficient time for evaluations

Determining roi

companies may desire to quantify whether the benefits of training outweigh the costs

Cost categories

program development or purchase, instructional materials, equipment and hardware, facilities, lodging and travel, salary of trainer and support staff

methods to identify benefits

literature that summarizes benefits, pilot training programs, observing successful job performers, asking trainees and managers for estimates

utility analysis

assessing dollar value of training based on estimates of the difference in performance between trained and untrained employees, number of individuals trained, length of time training is expected to influence performance, variability in performance in the

success cases

concrete examples showing how learning has led to results the company finds worthwhile and credible

return on expectations

demonstrates to key stakeholders that their expectations about training have been satisfied

big data

complex datasets compiled across different systems, including marketing, sales, HR, finance, accounting, customer service and operations

three dimensions characterize big data

volume, variety, and velocity

70-20-10 model

70% of learning comes from job relating experiences, 20% comes from interactions with others, 10% comes from formal educational events

guided competency learning

well defined competencies trained via lecture and online methods

social competency learning

well defined competencies learned via mentoring, job experiences, and coaching

guided contextual learning

context dependent competencies trained via simulation, on the job training, behavior modeling, and experiential learning

social contextual learning

context dependent competencies learned via social media and informal interactions through other


standard- trainer speaks trainees listen, team teaching- 2+ trainers present, guest speakers, panel, student presentations

advantages of lecutre

relativiely inexpensive and efficent for large groups, useful when the instructor is main knowledge holder

disadvantages of lecture

passive learning, potentially weak connection to work environment


includes overheads, slides, and video, video rarely used alone but can be effective for illustrating communication, interview, and customer services skills, or step by step procedures

advantages of video

can demonstrate easily content that cannot easily be demonstrated live, provides consistency, useful complement to other methods

disadvantages to video

creative approach may be weak, may become obsolete, passive

On the job training

involves learning by observing others and emulating their behavior, considered informal because it does not occur in classroom,

advantages of on the job training

requires less time and cost than formal training, customized and offered at any time, focuses on actual job content

disadvantages of on the job training

may be inconsistent, bad habits may be passed on

self directed learning

places complete responsibility on learner, content is predetermined but trainers can learn the content at their own pace

advantages of self directed learning

flexibility for trainers, fewer trainers, facilities, and resources required, consistent training content

disadvantages of self directed learning

may place too much responsibility on learner, may be costly


work study type training involving on the job and classroom training, common in skilled trades

employer advantages of apprenticeship

meets specific business needs, attract talented employees, trainees are skilled and motivated

employer disadvantages of apprenticeship

costly, potentially narrow skill set

trainee advantages of apprenticeship

earn pay while learning, wages increase as skills improve, competitive job offers

trainee disadvantage of apprenticeship

historically restricted access to women and minorities


training methods that represents a real life situation where trainees decisions result in outcomes that mirror what would happen on the job

the best simulations have a high degree of

identical elements

advantages of simulation

highly realistic, hands on practice, allow trainees to make mistakes

disadvantages of simulation

potentially expensive to develop, may be difficult to incorporate identical elements

case study

indepth scenario how employees or an organization dealt with a difficult situation

advantages of case study

useful for developing intellectual skills, engage learners

disadvantages of case study

trainees must be motivated and have a high degree of expertise, recommendations are merely hypothetical


primarily used for management skill development, require trainees to actively gather information, analyze, and make decision

advantages of games

can be used for training that would otherwise involve risk of accident or high cost, active involvement

disadvantages of games

difficult to develop, not always realistic, trainees must be motivated

role plays

require trainees take on a role such as a manager or disgruntled employee and explore what is involved with the role, often included in programs focused on the development of interpersonal skills

advantages of role play

allow trainees to practice skills, trainees are engaged

disadvantages of role play

trainees may not always take role play seriously, scenarios may not be realistic

behavior modeling

hands on method that involves presenting trainees a model, highlighting key aspects of model, practice and feedback, based on social learning theory

advantages of behavior modeling

hands on practice, highly effective in promoting self transfer

disadvantages of behavior modeling

potentially time consuming to implement

adventure learning

method aimed at developing tram work, leadership skills and self awareness

advantages of adventure learning

trainees interact and build relationships, can be self enlightening and invigorating

disadvantages of adventure learning

potential physical harm, costly, not all trainees may be motived

team training

three aspects of team performance behavior, knowledge, attitudes