39 to 40 weeks
Full-term gestation period
born before 37 weeks
2 weeks after conception, 3 thin layers are formed
develops into digestive system, liver and pancreas
develops into skeleton, muscles, heart, and blood vessels
develops into skin, nervous system, and sensory organs
from week 9 to birth:
Most rapid growth occurs
when most development occurs
nourishes the zygote
delivers nourishment to developing embryo and fetus
connection from placenta to fetus; nutrients travel from placenta and waste travels in opposite direction
kcal/day extra is required in 2nd trimester
kcal/day extra is needed in 3rd trimester
Maternal absorption increases up to 3 times.
Deficiency may cause:
Low birth weight.
Deficiency may cause birth defects, fetal growth retardation, premature birth, spontaneous abortion
increases by 50% during pregnancy
folate and vitamin B-12
critical for synthesis of DNA and cells
obese mother birth
Birth defects, including neural tube defects or oral clefts.
Being stillborn or dying in 1st few weeks after birth.
High birth weight.
Being obese in childhood
underweight mother birth
Low birth weight.
Being born premature.
Lower nutrient stores
under 18 birth
Prenatal growth retardation.
Death soon after birth
Regular meals are needed to avoid development
impairs delivery of oxygen and nutrients to developing fetus:
Retards growth and causes premature birth
High blood pressure
Protein in urine
Death of mother and fetus
develops in 18% of pregnancies:
Exercise and diet can help control
Expanding uterus crowding and compressing abdominal organs.
Hormones slowing the speed of digestion and relaxing sphincters
Hormones that relax intestinal muscles and slow digestion
Compression of the GI tract by developing fetus
Normal, physiological process occurring in the postpartum period.
Mammary glands that develop in adolescence are inactive until pregnancy
Hormone that promotes milk production.
Production and secretion is stimulated by birth and suckling
is strongest 1st hour after birth
every 2 to 3 hours
how often a baby should suckle
Pituitary gland releases _______ which causes muscle-like cells in breast to contract and release milk
Richer in protein, minerals, and vitamin A
Less lactose and fewer calories
Contains antibodies and immune system cells
Found in early days after delivery
Contains more fat, lactose, water-soluble vitamins, and calories
Provides 20 calories/ounce
Supplies baby with all nutritional needs besides vitamin D and iron
Inadequate amount can lead to decreased milk production and maternal dehydration