RMP 511 Exam 1

The first Puritans to arrive on what is now American soil thought of wilderness and nature as

A threat to their survival

Wilderness played a major role in the creation of a unique American identity, why?

It became a cultural asset

By the end of the 19th Century, American wilderness gradually became what to Europe's culturally advanced societies?

Something they envied

The etymology of the word "wilderness" can be interpreted as:

A place of wild beasts

what is an example of "pastoral" on Nash's wilderness scale.

Durham

In Wilderness & the American Mind, Nash contends that what ultimately created wilderness?

Civilization

In Snyder's The Etiquette of Freedom, what does he say about nature?

It is not a place, it is home

What movement did Thoreau and Emerson embody?

Transcendentalism

Who is famous for the quote, "In Wildness is the preservation of the World"?

Henry David Thoreau

The American Romantics believed what decreases as civilization increases?

Happiness

According to Nash, "wilderness" can used as both a noun and an adjective. What does this mean?

It describes a condition that can also be a place

The highest level of protection for public land in the U.S. (and the world) is:

Federally Designated Wilderness

Historically, wilderness has been celebrated by Western religion (i.e., Christianity).

False

Landscape (nature) art and literature was very damaging to the burgeoning conservation movement during the 1800's in America.

False

In our text book, Nash argues that two major threats contributed to a Pioneer bias against nature and the wilderness in the New World. These two types of threats were:

Physical and Symbolic

The Puritans wanted to separate from the Church of England, and hence sought the New World as their ideal place of worship

False

The influence of European intellectuals on the Colonists during the 17th and 18th Century contributed heavily to the rise of American Romanticism.

True

The appreciation and celebration of wilderness and nature in America has almost always been most attributed to:

The upper (wealthy) class

According to Jack Turner, what is missing from our experience with nature?

Contact

What is Jack Turner referring to when he talk about the "Other"?

The wild

What is Jack Turner's message about how humans should receive nature?

We need to recognize nature as our home

In his article, The Abstract Wild, Jack Turner indicates that zoos are increasingly representative of the wild, and of "real" nature.

False

Why does Terry Tempest Williams say that "wilderness" is a threatening word?

Because it is a threatened place

What does Williams point to as the start of the Conservation movement in America?

The defeat of Echo Dam (Dinosaur National Monument)

To save wilderness in the days ahead, Terry Tempest Williams says we need to have intellectual humility and political courage. What does she mean by this?

We need to recognize our mistakes of the past, and be a voice for nature moving forward

Barry Lopez claims that Columbus and the Spanish Inquisition on the New World set a precedent for what?

How we treat indigenous cultures and people who are different than us and nature

As Americans, Barry Lopez suggests we need to rediscover our continent. What does he mean by this?

That we need to get back to the basics, and recognize and respect the beauty of our country

Ultimately, Barry Lopez's powerful essay is a voice of optimism for the human race.

True

wilderness act of 1964

created national wilderness preservation system

primitivism

simple living

transcendentalists

sought to understand nature not just celebrate it

first national park

yellowstone

second national park

yosemite

first designated wilderness area

gila

weeks act of 1911

allowed fed gov't to buy private land for parks

Bob Marshall

founded wilderness society

aldo leopold

green fire, predators necessary to ecosystem

John Muir

Fought against hetch hetchy

gifford pinchot

first chief of u.s forest service