ROM others

Angular movements

flexion, extension

Rotational movements

internal / external rotation


If no limitations in ROM that would interfere with occupational functioning are found during the functional AROM scan

When recording ROM Measurement

Note whether Active or Passive ROM
�Record start / end positions (range)
�X�to Y�(X = starting position; Y = limit of motion at end of range)
�Neutral Zero Method: anatomical position = 0�
�Alternative starting position: can be different to anatomical pos

Agonists / Prime Movers

Muscles that cause movement through the process of their own contraction


Muscles that act in opposition to the specific movement generated by the agonist(s) and are responsible for returning a limb to its initial position


Muscles that perform, or helps perform, the same joint motion as the agonists. Synergists help cancel out, or neutralize, extra motion from the agonists to make sure that the force generated works within the desired plane of motion

Mechanical Advantage

�Refers to the length-tension relationship of a muscle
�A muscle is able to generate its greatest total tension when positioned at a length that gives it optimal mechanical advantage
�Principle used to elicit the best response from agonists and to limit t

MMT grading 5

Client able to move body part against gravity and with maximum resistance
-Resisted Movement

MMT grading 4

Client moves body part against gravity with moderate resistance
-Resisted Movement

MMT grading 3

Client moves body part through full ROM against gravity with no added resistance
-Free Movement

MMT grading 2

Client moves body part through a full ROM in a gravity-eliminated plane
-Free Movement

MMT grading 1

Flicker of muscle contraction is evident but no motion occurs at the joint
-No Movement

MMT grading 0

No evidence of muscle contraction upon palpation
-No Movement

Break test

Client is asked to hold a position isometrically as the tester exerts force to overcome the force of the muscle contraction.

Make Test" (aka "active contraction testing")

The therapist acts as a fixed point on which the client pushes.