Organizational Behavior Chapter 13

Leadership

The use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement, p. 418

Power

The ability to influence the behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return, p. 419
-because a person has the ability to influence others does not mean they will actually choose to do so.
- In many organizations, the most powerful employees do

Two types of power and facets

Organizational: Power from persons place in an organization more formal in nature
-legitimate, reward, coercive
Personal
-expert, referent

Legitimate power

A form of organizational power based on authority or position, p. 420
- have some type of title that assumes power
- have the understood right to ask others to do something
-manager asking you to stay later to finish project

Reward power

A form of organizational power based on the control of resources or benefits
-managers generally have control over raises, performance evaluations, awards, more desirable job assignments, and the resources an employee might require to perform a job effect

Coercive power

A form of organizational power based on the ability to hand out punishment
-It exists when one person believes that another has the ability to punish him or her and is willing to use that power. For example, a manager might have the right to fire, demote,

Expert power

A form of organizational power based on expertise or knowledge,
-individuals will have a degree of expert power because of what they individually bring to the organization - lone engineer

Referent power

A form of organizational power based on the attractiveness and charisma of the leader
-This desire is generally derived from affection, admiration, or loyalty toward a specific individual

Contingency Factors

-certain situations in organizations that increase or decrease the degree to which leaders can use their power to influence others
-four factors that have an effect on the strength of a person's ability to use power to influence others.
-Substitutability,

Substitutability

The degree to which people have alternatives in accessing the resources a leader controls,
-Leaders that control resources to which no one else has access can use their power to gain greater influence

Discretion

The degree to which managers have the right to make decisions on their own
- the more policies and organzational rules they have to follow less influence

Centrality

How important a person's job is and how many people depend on that person to accomplish their tasks
-Leaders who perform critical tasks and interact with others regularly have a greater ability to use their power to influence others

Visibility

How aware others are of a leader and the resources that leader can provide
- If everyone knows that a leader has a certain level of power, the ability to use that power to influence others is likely to be high.

Influence

-Power increases ability to influence doesnt mean its possible
-The use of behaviors to cause behavioral or attitudinal changes in others
-First, influence can be seen as directional. It most frequently occurs downward (managers influencing employees) but

Influencing Tacticts

-Leaders depend on a number of tactics to cause behavioral or attitudinal changes in others 10 main tactics:

Rational persuasion

The use of logical arguments and hard facts to show someone that a request is worthwhile
-The only tactic that is consistently successful in upward influence
- Larry Page and young engineers showing facts when he doesn't like something

Inspirational appeal

An influence tactic designed to appeal to one's values and ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reaction
-Elizabeth Holmes, from our opening case, uses stories to solidify the impact that Theranos products make on people.

Consultation

An influence tactic whereby the target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request
- This tactic increases commitment from the target, who now has a stake in seeing that his or her opinions are valued

Collaboration

Both a conflict resolution style and an influence tactic whereby both parties work together to maximize outcomes
-Collaboration could involve the leader helping complete the task, providing required resources, or removing obstacles that make task completi

Moderatley Effective

Ingratiation, personal appeals, exchange, apprising

Ingratiation

The use of favors, compliments, or friendly behavior to make the target feel better about the influencer
-"sucking up," especially when used in an upward influence sense. Ingratiation has been shown to be more effective when used as a long-term strategy a

Personal appeals

An influence tactic in which the requestor asks for something based on personal friendship or loyalty,
- The stronger the friendship, the more successful the attempt is likely to be
-

Exchange tactic

An influence tactic in which the requestor offers a reward in return for performing a request
-This type of request requires that the requestor have something of value to offer

Apprising

An influence tactic in which the requestor clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the target personally
-not something they get from the requestor but the action itself
-differs from rational as it focuses on target not organization as a

Pressure

An influence tactic in which the requestor attempts to use coercive power through threats and demands,
-As we've discussed previously, such coercion is a poor way to influence others and may only bring benefits over the short term. The last tactic is the

Coalitions

An influence tactic in which the influencer enlists other people to help influence the target
- For instance, if rational persuasion is not strong enough, the influencer might bring in another person to show that that person agrees with the logic of the a

Facts about tactics

Two points should be noted about leaders' use of influence tactics. First, influence tactics tend to be most successful when used in combination.27 Many tactics have some limitations or weaknesses that can be overcome using other tactics. Second, the infl

Three possible responses to influence tactics

Internalization, Compliance, resistance

Internalization

A response to influence tactics where the target agrees with and becomes committed to the request
-For a leader, this is the best outcome because it results in employees putting forth the greatest level of effort in accomplishing what they are asked to do

Compliance

When targets of influence are willing to do what the leader asks but do it with a degree of ambivalence, p. 426
- This behavior is the most common response to influence attempts in organizations, because anyone with some degree of power who makes a reason

Resistance

When a target refuses to perform a request and puts forth an effort to avoid having to do it, p. 426
-Employee resistance could come in the form of making excuses, trying to influence the requestor in return, or simply refusing to carry out the request. R

Organizational politics

Individual actions directed toward the goal of furthering a person's own self-interests, p. 427
-it's important to note that this definition doesn't imply that furthering one's self-interests is necessarily in opposition to the company's interests. A lead

Political skill

The ability to understand others and the use of that knowledge to influence them to further personal or organizational objectives, p. 427

Four Dimensions of Political Skill

Networking ability is an adeptness at identifying and developing diverse contacts.
- Social astuteness: is the tendency to observe others and accurately interpret their behavior. ------Interpersonal influence: involves having an unassuming and convincing

Conflict Resolution

In addition to using their power to shape office politics, leaders can use their influence in the context of conflict resolution. Conflict arises when two or more individuals perceive that their goals are in opposition
he five styles can be viewed as comb

Competing

-(high assertiveness, low cooperation)
-A conflict resolution style by which one party attempts to get his or her own goals met without concern for the other party's results, p. 430

Avoiding

-(low assertiveness, low cooperation)
-A conflict resolution style by which one party wants to remain neutral, stay away from conflict , or postpone the conflict to gather information or let things cool down, p. 430

Accommodating

-(low assertiveness, high cooperation)
-A conflict resolution style by which one party gives in to the other and acts in a completely unselfish way, p. 430

Compromise

- (high assertiveness, high cooperation)
-A conflict resolution style by which conflict is resolved through give-and-take concessions,
p. 431

Negotiation

A process by which two or more interdependent individuals discuss and attempt to reach agreement about their differences, p. 432

Negotiating Strategies

Distributive bargaining, Integrative,

Distributive bargaining

A negotiation strategy in which one person gains and the other person loses, - win lose

Integrative bargaining

A negotiation strategy that achieves an outcome that is satisfying for both parties, p. 434
- win win
-In general, integrative bargaining is a preferable strategy whenever possible because it allows a long-term relationship to form between the parties (be

Negotiation Stages

Preparation, Exchanging information, Bargaining, Closing & Commitment

Preparation

First stage of the negotiation process, during which each party determines its goals for the negotiation, p. 434 determines its BATNA

BATNA

A negotiator's best alternative to a negotiated agreement, p.434

Exchanging information

Second stage of the negotiation process, during which each party makes the strongest case for its position, p. 434

Bargaining

Third stage of the negotiation process, during which each party gives and takes to arrive a an agreement, p. 434

Closing and commitment

Fourth and final stage of the negotiation process, during which the agreement arrived at during bargaining gets formalized, p. 434

Alternative dispute resolution

A process by which two parties resolve conflicts through the use of a specially trained, neutral third party, p. 437

Mediation

A process by which a third party facilitates a dispute resolution process but with no formal authority to dictate a solution, p. 437

Arbitration

A process by which a third party determines a binding settlement to a dispute between two parties, p. 437

Power and correlation to job performance

power and influence are moderately correlated with job performance. When used correctly and focused on task-related outcomes, power and influence can create internalization in workers, such that they are both behaviorally and attitudinally focused on high

power and commitment

also reveals that power and influence are moderately related to organizational commitment. When a leader draws on personal sources of power, such as expert power and referent power, a stronger emotional bond can be created with the employee, boosting affe