Chapter 11 Diseases & Disorders of the Eye*

macular degeneration (SMD)

Deterioration of the macula associated with aging; impairs central vision (senile


The normal condition of the eye in refraction, in which parallel light rays focus exactly on the retina is called _____________.


drooping eyelid


________is a condition known as "LAZY EYE" occurs when the eyes are misaligned; dull, dim vision; inward turning or outward toward the ear; the brain suppresses the visual impulses from the affected eye of one eye with blurred vision; dull, dim vision; "L

Arcus Senilis

A condition in which a thin grayish-white arc or circle appears at the edge of the cornea; "Lazy" eye does not develop normal 20/20 vision acuity. May suggest hypercholesterolemia (in young people)

corneal abrasion

A ___________ is a scratch or trauma to the CORNEA caused by a foreign body in the eye; redness, tearing, irritation causing excessive blinking; Vision may be affected if the location and extent of the injury are significant

corneal ulcer

A ____________ is an acute disease caused by an infectious infiltration into the cornea; painful red eye, excessive tearing, sensitivity to light, and blurred vision; diagnosis made by a slit lamp microscope

Open-Angle: symptoms insidious, bilateral, and often go unrecognized until late in the disease
Close-Angle: can ultimately cause blindness after 24 hrs if pressure is NOT relieved

What is the difference between Open-Angle and Closed-Angle glaucoma?

Hordeolum (STYE)

____is a localized infection of an oil gland of the eyelid produces an abscess around the eyelashes; symptoms include: painful swollen red eye; caused by staphylococcus


__________ is the drooping of the upper eyelid that results in the eyes looking partially opened; may be congenital or from aging; Usually occurs as a normal part of the aging process; presence of an excess fatty fold, or a neurologic factor

Age-Related macular degeneration (AMD/ARMD)

_________ is the gradual loss of central vision; blurred, distorted, dark or empty area in the center of things viewed; a disease that affects the macula; damage to the blood vessels supplying the retina; thinning of the mascula; aging is the most common

Blepharitis (Lid Margin Disease)

________is an eyelid inflammation characterized by red-rimmed, continuous blinking/rubbing of the eyes, crusted eyelids with scales, itching, and burning, red-rimmed eyelid margins are all symptoms; eyelid inflammation. Persistant inflammation of the edge


A _________ opacity of the lens of the eye; painless, gradual visual blurring, and loss of vision; pupil turns from black to a milky white, seeing halos around lights or being blinded at night by oncoming head lights; occurs frequently in people over 70


___________ is commonly called pink eye, highly contagious, inflammation and usually infection of the conjunctiva; redness, pain, and occasional discharged Caused by inflammation of the conjunctiva; -Begins in one eye and spreads to the other; causes redn


__________ a visual deviation of the eyeball; blurred or double vision. One eye deviates with the gaze being abnormally inward or outward or higher or lower than the other eye
-This can result in:
Esotropia: abnormally inward gaze
Exotropia: abnormally ou


Inflammation of the iris; moderate to severe pain; photophobia, and a poorly reacting pupil caused by the spasm of the iris. sensitivity to light, and small, nonreactive pupils

Glaucoma Open-Angle

Symptoms are insidious, bilateral, and often not recognized until late in the disease. Painless loss of of peripheral (side) vision and difficulty seeing in dark/night places. Seeing halos around lights. Drainage angle is open.

Glaucoma Closed-Angle

There is pain and redness of the affected eye with a feeling of pressure, pain can be so intense it can cause nausea and vomiting. Pupil is moderately dilated and nonreactive to the light. Blurred and decreased visual acuity and sensitivity to light. Unle


__________ is commonly called nearsightedness, a defect in vision due to misshapen eyeball so that objects can only be seen when very near; an error of refraction in which light rays focus in front of the retina rather than directly on it, so that distant


Hyperopia is commonly called ___________.

Diabetic retinopathy

___________ are degenerative changes in the retina associated with diabetes mellitus; glare, blurred vision, floaters; reduced visual acuity, decreased peripheral visual field eventual blindness; results from juvenile or adult diabetes and is the leading


_________is a disease of the eye caused by increased intraocular pressure that damages the optic disk and atrophy of the optic nerve that causes loss of vision. Usually results from faulty drainage of ?uids from the anterior portion of the eye. Symptoms i


An error of refraction in which light rays focus behind the retina and objects can be seen clearly only when far from the eye; farsightedness; also called hypermetropia. Eyeball is too short back to front so the light is brought to focus behind the retina

Ophthalmia neonatorum

________is a severe conjunctivitis usually caused by infection with gonococcus during birth.


Removal of a cataract by ultrasonic destruction and extraction of the lens is called __________________.


___________ is the change in the eye that occur with age; the lens loses elasticity and the ability to accommodate for near vision; old age vision; generally starts around age 40. Usually occurs as a normal part of the aging process
-First symptom - usual

retinal detachment

Separation of the retina from the underlying layer of the eye is called _______________; symptoms include visual floating spots, light flashes, and gradual vision loss; Three main types
Rhegmatogenous, exudative, traction


________is an infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis leading to in?ammation and scarring of the cornea and conjunctiva; a common cause of blindness in underdeveloped countries.


_______ causes distorted vision in both near and far objects; an error of refraction caused by irregularity in the curvature of the cornea or lens.


____is paralysis of the ciliary body.


tear bladder inflammation


___________is double vision.


paralysis of the iris


_______ is a corneal inflammation.


________ is an abnormal condition of eye fungus.


_____is eye pain.


______is the rapid bleeding from eye.


___________ is a retina disease.


_________is the surgical fixation of the retina.


___________ is the softening of the sclera.


____________ is the inflammation of the sclera.


_________ is an inflammation of the choroid.


_______ is dark vision difficulty. Night blindness.


_______ means dry eyes.