#### Intro to Chem 1500 Ch. 3 Periodic Table

grouped them in threes based on similar qualities. The middle element was always the average mass of the other two

How did Johann Wolfgang D�bereinger group elements. What trend was shown in this

grouped them in a single file line fashion based on increasing atomic mass. Elements that were eight spaces away from eachother had similar qualities

How did John Newlands group the elements, what trends were shown in this

groups them in vertical columns distinguishing them by their qualities. He also arranged them in increasing order of atomic mass, and left empty spaces for outlier elements or undiscovered ones.

How did Dmitri Mendeleev group the elements

that atoms were mostly empty space with positively charged nucleuses

what did rutherfords gold foil experiment tell us about the makeup of an atom?

fired xrays (electrons) at different elements. This helped in determining their proton count, and how they should be ordered on the periodic table (atomic number = proton number)

What did Henry Mosely do, and how did this help in the arrangement of the periodic table?

the physical and chemical properties of elements are arranged with increasing atomic number

What is the periodic law?

groups/ families

What are the vertical columns called on the periodic table

periods

what are the horizontal rows on the periodic table called

the atom is a small particle with a small central positive nucleus surrounded by constantly moving negatively charged particles

What is the Bohr Model (or the rutherford-bohr model) of the atom?

the location and energy of the electrons around the nucleus can be described by shell, subshell, and orbital

what is the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom

distance of the electron from the nucleus (designated by n) (example, 1st shell, 2nd shell, etc)

What is a shell (in atomic terms)

volume of space around atomic nuclei in which electrons move groups of orbitals with the same n value from the subshells (basically just the pair of electrons on a shell)

What is an orbital

division of a shell (s, p, d , f)

What is a subshell

valence electrons

Elements in the same groups have the same number of what

if two electrons occupy the same space orbital one spins up and the other down

Whats the paul exclusion principal

electrons each go to one orbital before going back and filling them

what is hunds rule

they take one electron from the latest s group and donate it to the p or d group, making the s group half filled

elements that make exceptions in electron configuration do what

it will often create half or filled subshells which create a more stable element

why do some elements make an exception when doing electron configuration

last highest energy electron in an element

What is a distinguishing electron

groups 1-2 and 13-18

What are the representative elements

groups 3-12

What are the transition elements

lanthanide and actinide series

What are the inner transition elements

metal

what type of element is this (metal, non-metal, metalloid), good conductor of heat and electricity, ductile, malleable, shiny luster

nonmetal

What type of element is this (metal, non-metal, metalloid), brittle and powdery, gases, right side of periodic table

metalloid

What type of element is this (metal, non-metal, metalloid), semi conductors of electricity, in the middle of metal and non-metals

down and to the left (Fr is most metallic)

What directions do metallic properties of metals increase?

up and to the right (F is most non-metal)

What direction does non-metalic properties increase

top to bottom

what direction does size increase on the periodic table

down and to the right (more protons = more pull on the electrons, drawing them closer)

what direction does size decrease on the periodic table

the amount of energy it takes to take an electron away from an element

What is ionization energy

group 1, doesn't include H, active metals, very soft, very active and activity increases downwards

Describe the alkaline metal family

group 2, not as active as group 1, ductile and malleable, hard (ductile and malleable)

Describe the alkaline earth family

group 13, boron being a metalloid thus being excluded from these traits, good conductors of heat and electricity, soft and reactive

describe the aluminum family

group 14, overall very stable

describe the carbon family

nitrogen family

what is group 15

group 16, active nonmetals

describe the oxygen family

group 17, typically form salts with elements from groups 1 & 2, active non-metals (flourine being the most active)

describe the halogen family

group 18, stable and non-reactive, colorless, orderless, tasteless, nonflammable in standard form

Describe the noble gas family

metals, often form colored compounds and are used in paint pigments

describe transition elements

alkali metal family

what family is this

alkaline earth metal family

what family is this

aluminum family

what family is this

carbon family

what family is this

nitrogen family

what family is this

Oxygen family

what family is this

halogen family

what family is this

noble gas family

what family is this

transition elements

what elements are these

lanthanide

what elements are these

actinides

what elements are these

non-metal

what kind of element are these (metal, non-metal, metalloid)

metal

what kind of element are the white (metal, non-metal, metalloid)

metalloid

what kind of element are these (metal, non-metal, metalloid)