Cell Theory, Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells, and Nucleus

Proteins

Nutrients the body uses to build and maintain its cells and tissues

Protein Synthesis

The creation of a protein from a DNA template.

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid; It is the carrier of genetic information.

Chromosomes

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell

Endoplasmic Reticulum

A cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.

Golgi apparatus

A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell

Prokaryotic Cell

Has no nucleus, DNA floats inside the cell

Prokaryotes

Organisms with prokaryotic cells; all prokaryotes are single-celled (unicellular)

Eukaryotic Cell

Has a nucleus, DNA is located in the nucleus.

Eukaryote

Organisms with eukaryotic cells; all multi-cellular organisms are eukaryotes; Eukaryotes may also be single-celled

Nucleus

Where cells store their DNA, which is the genetic material; it is surrounded by a membrane.

Cell Membrane

The phospholipid layer that surrounds the cell and protects it from the outside environment.

Organelles

Membrane-bound structures; In addition to a nucleus, eukaryotic cells include these

Ribosomes

the non-membrane bound organelles where proteins are made

Cytoplasm

Jellylike substance where all of the organelles float.

Multicellular

organisms made with two or more cells

Unicellular

single-celled organisms

Cells

Building blocks of life. Cells are the smallest unit of structure and function of all living organisms.

Organ Systems

Groups of organs joining together to perform a job

Microscope

Is a tool used to make things that are too small to be seen by the human eye look bigger. Types of microscopes include light, dissection, and electron microscopes.

Organs

are formed from two or more specialized tissues working together to perform a job.

Hypothesis

Is a prediction or guess of an outcome. Must be able to be tested and measured.

Tissue

A tissue is a group of specialized cells joining together to form a specific type of tissue.

Theories

an explanation supported by evidence with no major inconsistencies.

Specialized Cells

groups of cells that perform a certain job together.

Scientific Theory

is a proposed description, explanation, or model of something occurring in nature. These theories have to be testable so that scientists can use the scientific method to see if they work.

Ribosomes

Are organelles that make proteins in the cytoplasm.

Nucleolus

The job of the nucleolus is to build ribosomes.

Genes

A small unit of genetic material (DNA) that contains the code for the creation of a protein.

Chromosomes

Are threadlike strands of DNA wrapped around proteins

Nuclear Pores

Holes embedded in the nuclear envelope. These holes allow things to flow in and out of the nucleus.

Nuclear Envelope

A double membrane (two phospholipid bilayers) that controls what goes in and out of the nucleus.

Nucleus

Only found in eukaryotic cells. It contains most of the genetic material (the DNA) of the cell.