MH Lecture 1

Freud's definition of mental health

the ability to work and to love

Robinson's definition of mental health

mental health is a dynamic state in which thought, feeling and behavior that is age appropriate and congruent with cultural norms is demonstration. It is characterized by the use of behaviors that alter stressors and promote problem resolution


results from both positive and negative events and comes from any direction

physiological effects of stress

enlargement of the adrenal cortex

stage 1: Alarm Reaction

fight or flight

stage 2: Resistance

corticosteriods: fatigue, irrritibility

stage 3: Exhaustion



the process of managing stress

primary prevention strategies

goal is to prevent mental illness
1. protect the developing brain
2. minimize predisposition to disease
3. Increase resistance to disease (preventing substance abuse)

secondary prevention strategies

early recognition, case finding and priority interventions
EX: depression screening in nursing homes
EX: crisis intervention and management (rape center)

tertiary prevention strategies

designed to reduce residual effects of mental illness and facilitate rehabilitation
EX: social skills training for schizophrenics
EX: relapse prevention programs
EX: medication education

psychoanalysis goal

to resolve issues by making the unconscious conscious

psychoanalysis methods

free association (say whatever comes into your mind)
dream analysis (talking about them)
Freudian slips (meant to say something but said something else)
analysis of defense mechanisms
interpretation of transference and resistance


the idea that the therapist is a blank screen. the patient doesn't know anything about the therapist

ego functions

accurately perceive and adapt to reality
differentiate ourselves from others
integrate good and bad parts
control and regulate instinctual drives
tolerate frustration and delay gratification
think logically and solve problems
learn from experience and ant

primitive defense mechanisms

acting out***
reaction formation

less primitive defense mechanisms


mature defense mechanisms



unconscious feelings that a person had for a significant other in childhood that are now being projected into the nurse
transference can be positive or negative


unconscious feelings that the nurse has from a previous relationship that are being projected onto the patient
feelings can be positive or negative


a process that seeks to maintain the status quo by conscious or unconsciously resisting expose of information that would lead to change



infant- 18 months (erikson)

trust v mistrust
forming attachment to mother, which lay foundations for ater trust in others

18 months - 3 years

autonomy v shame & doubt
gaining some basic control of self and environment

3 - 5 years (erikson)

initiative v guilt
becoming purposeful and directive

5 - 13 years (erikson)

industry v inferiority
developing social, physical, and school skills

13 - 21 years old (erikson)

identity v role confusion
making transition from childhood to adulthood; developing sense of identity

21 - 39 years old

intimacy v isolation
establishing intimate bonds of love and friendship

40 - 65 years old

ego integrity v despair
fulfilling life goals and looking back at ones life

unsuccessful resolution of crisis in a infant

i cant trust anyone, no one has ever been there when i needed them

unsuccessful resolution of crisis in a early child

i could never lose the weight they want me to, so why even try

unsuccessful resolution of crisis in a preschooler

i wanted the candy, so i took it

unsuccessful resolution of crisis in a school aged

i cant read as well as the others in my class; im just dumb

unsuccessful resolution of crisis in a adolescence

i belong to the gang because without them i am nothing

unsuccessful resolution of crisis in a early adult

there's no one out there for me

unsuccessful resolution of crisis in a Middle Aged adult

after i work all day, i just want to watch television and dont want to be around people

unsuccessful resolution of crisis in a 65 or older

what a waste my life has been; im going to die alone

goal of behavioral theory

to eliminate problematic behaviors and shape desirable behaviors

Pavlov & Skinner Behavioral Theory

personality consists of learned behavior
therefore it can be unlearned

classic conditioning

the dog salivating example

systematic desensitization

1. establish a hierarchy of anxiety provoking events
2. teach relaxation strategies
3. expose patient to anxiety-provoking stimulus while she practices relaxtion

conversion therapy

for pedophiles, also was used for homosexuals

aversion therapy

A behavior therapy in which an aversive stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits an undesirable response.

interpersonal theory

human beings are driven by a need for human interaction. Psych disorders are influenced by the interpersonal interactions and the social context in which they occurs

key concept of interpersonal theory

anxiety is caused by insecurity in social relationships
loneliness is the most painful emotion

goal of interpersonal therapy

to help people develop healthy and secure interpersonal attachments characterized by mutual love and repspect

methods of interpersonal therapy

therapeutic relationships
skills training/education
role playing
modeling health interpersonal behaviors

Person - Centered Therapy

mental health is defined as congruence between who one wants to become and who one actually is

rogers idea on anxiety

anxiety signifies that we are not living in ways that are congruent with our authentic selves

existential theory

all human beings are susceptible to anxiety resulting from loneliness, isolation, loss, despair, human limitations and the reality that none of us can escape death

goal of existential theory

to help people live lives full of meaning and purpose in the face of suffering and uncertainty

cognitive theory

our thoughts shape our attitudes

rational emotive therapy

albert ellis

RET is a form of

cognitive behavioral therapy

What are ellis's 3 musturbations

1. i must do well
2. you must treat me well
3. the world must be easy