PS 20 Final Johns


An interaction in which two or more actors adopt policies that make at least one actor better off relative to the status quo without making others worse off (positive sum game and Pareto Efficient (make someone better off without making anyone worse off)


An interaction in which actors must choose outcomes that make one better off at the expense of another. It is redistributive: it involves allocating a fixed sum of value between different actors (zero-sum game)


A type of of cooperative interaction in which actors benefit from all making the same choices and subsequently have no incentive to not comply.
Example: Battle of the Sexes game, both want to watch movie together. Civil Aviation Rules-language of air trav


A type of cooperative interaction in which actors gain from working together but nonetheless have incentives to not comply with any agreement.
Example: Security Dilemma during Cold War
-environmental standards/climate change (kyoto agreement)


The linking of cooperation on one issue to interactions on a second issue.
Significance: allows victims to retaliate by withholding cooperation on other issues, helps facilitate cooperation.
Example: trade agreements including human rights agreements.

agenda-setting power

A "first-mover" advantage that helps an actor secure a more favorable bargain. They can set the terms of negotiations, can shape the bargaining outcomes.
Examples: United States president has agenda setting power by sponsoring legislative proposals, calli

causes of war

Territory, Policies, Regime Type.
Rationalist Explanations: Incomplete Information, Commitment Problems, Indivisibility

crisis bargaining

A bargaining interaction in which at least one actor threatens to use force in the event that its demands are not met


An effort to change the status quo through the threat of force


An effort to preserve the status quo through the threat of force


The willingness of an actor to endure costs in order to acquire some good. Incentives to misrepresent-more willing to fight= better settlements

preventive war

A war fought with the intention of preventing an adversary from becoming stronger in the future. These arise because states whose power is increasing cannot commit to exploit that power in future bargaining interactions.
Example: Osirak attack (Israel att

preemptive war

A war fought with the anticipation that an attack by the other side is imminent.
Example: Six Day War (Israel vs. 3 other states). The build up of Egyptian troops on border made Israel attack first.
Incentives to justify actions as this type!

How can we make war less likely?

Increase costs of war, increase transparency, external enforcement of commitments, divide apparently indivisible goods

Why can small groups (interest groups) be so powerful?

They can give politicians special expertise, give political contributions or mobilize their members, can overcome collective actions problems easier.

democratic peace

The observation that there are few, if any, clear cases of war between mature democratic states.
Mature democracies seldom fight each other, but are not any less war-prone than non-democracies.


a political system in which candidates compete for political office through frequent and fair elections in which a sizable amount of the portion of the adult pop. can vote.
-liberal values, accountability, audience costs (more credible), typically more tr

balance of power

realist view; alliances form to make the military capabilities of two states or groups of states equal
Example: Nato vs. Warsaw Pact

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

A military alliance created in 1949 to bring together many western European nations, the united states, and Canada, forming the foundation for the american led military bloc during the cold war. Expanded to Easter European states and Russia, looking more


credibility vs. control. Weaker nations in an alliance may take risky actions, demand more, make larger threats because they know their strong ally will defend them. Stronger country may feel "entrapped" in costly war by reckless ally.
Example: Taiwan vs.

Warsaw Pact

A military alliance formed in 1955 to bring together the soviet union and its cold war allies in eastern europe and elsewhere; it dissolved on march 31,1991, as the cold war ended

collective security organizations

Broad-based institutions that promote peace and security among their members.
Examples: League of Nations, UN
-large, diverse membership
-promote peace and security
-general goals
In crisis bargaining they can intervene, enforce agreements, act as neutral

What are some insurgency conditions that make is more likely that there will be a civil war?

if a country has...
-rough terrain (geography factor)
-poor infrastructure
-far from capital (vast lands)

Why are civil wars so hard to end?

Because there is a commitment problem. The government will always ask rebel group to disarm and the rebel group won't agree to it because they are scared that the state will not stick to the agreement once they are weaker.

Bretton Woods System

A monetary order negotiated among the World War II allies in 1944, which lasted until the 1970s and which was based on the U.S. dollar tied to gold. Other currencies were fixed to the dollar, but were permitted to adjust their exchange rates.

Comparative advantage

The ability of a country or firm to produce a particular good or service more efficiently than other goods or services, such that its resources are most efficiently employed in this activity. The comparison is to the efficiency of other economic activitie

Absolute advantage

The ability of a country or firm to produce more of a particular good or service than other countries or firms using the same amount of effort and resources.

Heckscher-Ohlin trade theory

The theory that a country will export goods that make intensive use of the factors of production in which it is well endowed. Thus, a labor-rich country will export goods that make intensive use of labor.


The imposition of barriers to restrict imports. Commonly used ___ devices include tariffs, quantitative restrictions (quotas), and other nontariff barriers.

Trade barrier

Any government limitation on the international exchange of goods. Examples include tariffs, quantitative restrictions (quotas), import licenses, requirements that governments can only buy domestically produced goods, and health and safety standards that d


A tax imposed on imports; this raises the domestic price of the imported good and may be applied for the purpose of protecting domestic producers from foreign competition.

Nontariff barriers to trade

Obstacles to imports other than tariffs (trade taxes). Examples include restrictions on the number of products that can be imported (quantitative restriction, or quotas); regulations that favor domestic over imported products and other measures that discr

Stolper-Samuelson theorem

The theory that protection benefits the scarce factor of production. This view flows from the Heckscher-Ohlin approach; if a country imports goods that make intensive use of its scarce factor, then limiting imports will help that factor. So in a labor-sca

Ricardo-Viner (specific factors) model

A model of trade relations that emphasizes the sector in which factors of production are employed, rather than the nature of the factor itself. This differentiates it from the Heckscher-Ohlin approach, for which the nature of the factor--labor, land, capi


In international trade relations, a mutual agreement to lower tariffs and other barriers to trade. ___ involves an implicit or explicit arrangement for one government to exchange trade policy concessions with another.

Most favored nation (MFN) status

A status established by most modern trade agreements guaranteeing that the signatories will extend to each other any favorable trading terms offered in agreements with third parties.

World Trade Organization (WTO)

An institution created in 1995 to succeed the GATT and to govern international trade relations. The ___ encourages the polices the multilateral reductions of barriers to trade, and it oversees the resolution of trade disputes.

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

In international institution created in 1948 in which members countries committed to reduce barriers to trade and to provide similar trading conditions to all other members. In 1995, the ___ was replaced by the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Portfolio investment

Investment in a foreign country via the purchase of stocks (equities), bonds, or other financial instruments. ___ do not exercise management control of the foreign operation.

Sovereign lending

Loans from private financial institutions in one country to sovereign governments in others countries.

Foreign direct investment (FDI)

Investment in a foreign country via the acquisition of a local variety of the establishment of a new facility. Direct investors maintain managerial control of the foreign operation.

World Bank

An important international institution that provides loans at below-market interest rates to developing countries, typically to enable them to carry out development projects.

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

A major international economic institution that was established in 1944 to manage international monetary relations and that has gradually reoriented itself to focus on the international financial system, especially the debt and currency crises.

Bilateral investment treaty (BIT)

An agreement between two countries about the conditions for private investment across borders. Most ___ include provisions to protect an investment from government discrimination or expropriation without compensation, as well as establishing mechanisms to

Fixed exchange rate

An exchange rate policy under which a government permits itself to keep its currency at or around a specific value in terms of another currency or a commodity, such as gold.

Gold standard

The monetary system that prevailed between about 1870 and 1914, in which countries tied their currencies to gold at a legally fixed price.

Floating exchange rate

An exchange rate policy under which a government permits its currency to be traded on the open market without direct government control or intervention.

Adjustable peg

A monetary system of fixed but adjustable rates. Governments are expected to keep their currencies fixed for extensive periods, but are permitted to adjust the exchange rate from time to time as economic conditions change.

International monetary regime

A formal or informal arrangement among governments to govern themselves among their currencies, and which is shared by most countries in the world economy.

humanitarian interventions

Interventions designed to relieve humanitarian crises stemming from civil conflicts or large-scale human rights abuses, including genocide

International Criminal Court

Court for human right cases that possesses jurisdiction only if the accused is a national of a state party, the crime took place on the territory of a state party, or the UNSC has referred the case