World History Chapter 1

Mesopotamia

The land "between the rivers" (Tigris and Euphrates).

Polytheism

Belief in many gods

Cuneiform

The earliest known form of writing; much of what we know about Sumer came from the discover of this

ziggurats

Pyramid-like structures made by the Sumerians

Hammurabi

Babylonian king best remembered for his code of laws, the earliest written set of laws known.

Epic of Gilgamesh

A long Babylonian poem which describes a universal flood similar to the Biblical world flood.

Ur

City where Abraham was born

Old Kingdom

The earliest major phase of Egyptian history (2700-2200 BC). Known as "The Age of the Pharaohs

Pharaohs

Rulers of Egypt who were thought of as gods

Middle Kingdom

The second major phase of Egyptian history (2100-1640 BC). Known as "The Age of the People"; a time of peace when the Israelites moved to Egypt

New Kingdom

The final major phase of Egyptian history (1570-1075 BC). Known as "The Age of the Empire" because that's when Egypt became a great world power; Egyptian capital was moved to Thebes

Hatshepsut

The first great woman ruler of Egypt

Thutmose III

The greatest Egyptian warrior-king who conquered Palestine and Syria. Known as the "Napoleon of Egypt

hieroglyphics

A form of picture writing used by the Egyptians

Phoenicians

People group believed to be the originators of the alphabet. Became the greatest merchants of Canaan and set up trading outposts all around the Mediterranean.

Monotheism

Belief in only one God. The Hebrews and the ancient Persians both practiced monotheism.

Diaspora

The "scattering" of the Jewish people when Nebuchadnezzar carried them away captive

Desert

The geographic feature that helped preserve the monuments, the documents, and the bodies of ancient Egyptian rulers

Nile

Geographic feature that made life possible in Egypt, and which contributed to the unity of Egypt.

Fertile Crescent

A geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates