US History Ch. 10

political machine

An informal group designed to gain and keep power in a city


Entertainment adapted from French theater


Belief that a person could rise in society

Horatio Alger

wrote "Rags-to-riches" novels

Herbert Spencer

Applied Charles Darwin's theory to society

Stephen Crane

Prominent naturalist writer


the idea that some people fail in life because of circumstances they could not control


the most basic and cheapest accommodations on a steamship

Angel Island

location of a barracks in California to accommodate Asian immigrants

settlement houses

established in poor neighborhoods where middle-class residents lived and helped the poor residents


hostility toward immigrants


multi-family apartments

unemployment, rebellion

What were two reasons that Chinese immigration increased in the mid-1800's?


Native born American's blamed these people for the increase in crime

price of land

What gave city landowners the incentive to grow upward rather than outward?

cable cars

What was the type of mass transit used first in San Francisco?

entertainment and recreation

Popular culture changed in the late 1800s because industrialization improved the standard of living for many people, enabling them to spend money on

Social Gospel movement

From about 1870 until 1920, reformers worked to better conditions in cities according to biblical ideals of charity and justice in the


By the late 1890s, immigrants made up significant percentages of some of the country's largest

western cities

Where did many Chinese immigrants settle?

Chinese Exclusion Act

What law, passed in 1882, barred Chinese immigration for 10 years and prevented the Chinese already in the country from becoming citizens

Ellis Island

The processing center for the vast majority of immigrants arriving on the East Coast was at

public schools

What was often crucial to the Americanization of immigrant children?

middle class

America's industrialization not only made some people wealthy; it also helped create a growing