An informal group designed to gain and keep power in a city
Entertainment adapted from French theater
Belief that a person could rise in society
wrote "Rags-to-riches" novels
Applied Charles Darwin's theory to society
Prominent naturalist writer
the idea that some people fail in life because of circumstances they could not control
the most basic and cheapest accommodations on a steamship
location of a barracks in California to accommodate Asian immigrants
established in poor neighborhoods where middle-class residents lived and helped the poor residents
hostility toward immigrants
What were two reasons that Chinese immigration increased in the mid-1800's?
Native born American's blamed these people for the increase in crime
price of land
What gave city landowners the incentive to grow upward rather than outward?
What was the type of mass transit used first in San Francisco?
entertainment and recreation
Popular culture changed in the late 1800s because industrialization improved the standard of living for many people, enabling them to spend money on
Social Gospel movement
From about 1870 until 1920, reformers worked to better conditions in cities according to biblical ideals of charity and justice in the
By the late 1890s, immigrants made up significant percentages of some of the country's largest
Where did many Chinese immigrants settle?
Chinese Exclusion Act
What law, passed in 1882, barred Chinese immigration for 10 years and prevented the Chinese already in the country from becoming citizens
The processing center for the vast majority of immigrants arriving on the East Coast was at
What was often crucial to the Americanization of immigrant children?
America's industrialization not only made some people wealthy; it also helped create a growing