APUSH Chapter 30 The War to End War

Zimmermann Note (1917)

An intercepted telegram from Germany to Mexico saying that if Mexico attacked the US, they would be awarded parts of the States like Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. While not taken seriously by Mexico or President Wilson, it served its purpose to infuriat

Germany's Response to Wilson's final "Peace without Victory" address

Germany announced that it would break the Sussex pledge and return to unrestricted submarine warfare, which meant that its U Beats would now be firing on armed and unarmed ships in the war zone

Wilson's attempt to arm Merchant ships

Band of Midwestern senators blocked this measure

President Wilson's Declaration of War

on April 2, 1913. Germany kept sinking ships and Russian revolution toppled the tsarist regime

American's position going into the war

Many people didn't want to enter into war for America had prided itself in isolationism for decades, and now, Wilson was entangling America in a distant war. 6 senators and 50 representatives including first Congresswoman, Jeanette Ranking, votes against

Wilson's attempt to get enthusiasm for the war

To make the world safer for democracy. This idealistic motto worked brilliantly, but the new American zeal came the loss of Wilson's earlier motto, peace without victory.

Fourteen Points

A peace program presented to the U.S. Congress by President Woodrow Wilson in January 1918. It called for the evacuation of German-occupied lands, the drawing of borders and the settling of territorial disputes by the self-determination of the affected po

The idealistic goals of the Fourteen Points

No more secret treaties. Freedom of the seas was to be maintained. A removal of economic barriers among nations. Reduction of armament burdens. Adjustment of colonial claims in the interest of natives and colonizers. Self determination, "or independence f

Committee on Public Information

It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at

Espionage Act And Sedition Act (1917)

Federal laws enacted in 1917 and 1918 which made it a crime to utter false statements that would interfere with the military, to use the mails to advocate treason or resistance to laws, or to express any disloyalty intending to incite resistance to the wa

Schenck v. United States (1919)

A 1919 decision upholding the conviction of a socialist who had urged young men to resist the draft during World War I. Justice Holmes declared that government can limit speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils.

War Industries Board

Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries., Headed by Bernard Baruch, could order businesses to support war by building more plants, etc.

Council of National Defense

America was very unprepared for war. This studied the problems with mobilization and had launched a ship building program. Made America 15th largest army in the world.

National War Labor Board

1918- Board created to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers in order to ensure labor reliability and productivity during the war. Headed by Taft

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)

Founded in 1905, this radical union, also known as the Wobblies aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor's interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution, and led several

Congress "Work or Fight" Rule (1918)

imposed a rule that made any unemployed man available to enter the war and also discouraged strikes.

American Federation of Labor

Headed by Samuel Gompers. Represented skilled laborers, loyally supported the war, and by wars end, its membership more than doubled over 3 million

Labor Problems

As price inflation threatened to eclipse wage gains, and over 6,000 strikes broke out during the war, the greatest occurring in 1919, when 250,000 steelworkers walked off the job.

Steelworkers Strike

250,000 steelworkers walked off the job so steel owners brought in 30,000 African Americans to break the strike, and in the end, the strike collapsed, hurting the labor cause for more than a decade

Blacks in American during war

Blacks immigrated to the North to find more jobs. The apperence of Blacks in formerly all-white towns sparked violence such as in Chicago and St. Louis.

Nineteenth Amendment

(WW) , granted women the right to vote in 1920 (Susan B Anthony started campaign)

Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act

(1921) Designed to appeal to new women voters, this act provided federally financed instruction in maternal and infant health care and expanded the role of government in family welfare.

Women's role in workplace

Found more oppurtunities since men were gone to war.

Split Women's suffrage movement

Progressive women suffragists were also pacifists and therefore against the war. Most women supported the war and concluded they must help in the war if they want to help shape the peace (get the vote).

Women after war

most women gave up their jobs at wars end, and Congress affirmed its support of women in their traditional roles.

Food Administration

Headed by Herbert Hoover since he organized a hugely successful voluntary food drive for the people of Belgium. Didn't like ration cards and come up with Meatless Tuesdays and Wheatless Wednesdays as well as posters, billboards, and other media to whip up

18th Amendment Process

Sped up by the wave of self sacrifice during the war.

Ways of Funding the War

Sale of war bonds, four great Liberty Loan drives, and increased taxes

Railroads in 1917

Government took over the railroads in 1917 to flex its power.

European request from America

Asked America for their loans and also asked America for men or the Allies would collapse.

Draft Bill

Wilson has to make a draft bill in order to get men to help the Allies. Wilson disagreed due to the rememberence of the Civil War but went with it. Draft bill ran into heated opposition in Congress but it was passed. No way to buy out of draft like before

African American Roles in Army

Usually assigned to non-combat duty: also training was so rushed that troops didn't know how to use their weapons.

Russia out of war

Bolsheviks seized control of Russia and freed thousands of German troops to fight on the Western Front

German Predictions of America

Were accurate. America took one year to send a real force to Europe and also had transportation problems.

Russia at Archangel

US troops helped the Allied invasion to prevent munitions from falling into German hands. 10,000 troops were sent to Siberia as part of Allied expedition whose purpose was to prevent munitions from falling into the hands of Japan, rescue 45,000 trapped Cz

Chateau-Thierry

This battle was fought on July 18, 1918 and was one of the first actions the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) under General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing. The Germans were only 50 miles outside of Paris, but the AEF stopped the German offensive. For the

Meuse-Argonne Offensive

also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire western front. The whole offensive was planned by Marshall Ferdinand Foch to breach the Hindenburg line and reach the tra

French Marshal Foch

Commander who led the Allies just before the Germans were about to invade Paris and knock out France.

Second Battle of the Marne

the Allies pushed Germany back some more, marking a German withdrawal that was never again effectively reversed

John J. Pereshing

General of the Americans who lead a front in the Meuse Argonne Offensive

Armistice Day/ Veterans Day

German laid down their arms in armistice after overthrowing their Kaiser in hopes they could get peace based on the 14 points. Happened on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918.

American Contributions of War

foodstuffs, munitions, credits, oil, not battlefield victories. The prospect of endless American troops, rather than the American military performance, that had demoralized the Germans.

Influenza Pandemic

30 million people perished word wide in 1918-1919. 550,000 Americans-more than ten times the number of U.S. combat casualties died .

Wilson Representation at Paris

Failed to bring a single Republican to Paris even though the American votes gave Republicans a narrow majority.

Henry Cabot Lodge

Republican senator. Regarded as a very intelligent man who used to be the scholar in politics until Wilson came along. He was jealous and spiteful of Wilson, and the Republicans got even more angry. He was apart of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relation

League of Nations

A multinational peace keeping organization which began as an idea of United States President Woodrow Wilson following the first World War. The Treaty of Versailles created a League with over 40 different countries joining. The League of Nations was to be

Big Four

The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy.

War Guilt Clause

1.) formally blamed Germany 2.) charged Germany for $33 billion

irreconcilables

During World War I, senators William Borah of Idaho and Hiram Johnson of California, led a group of people who were against the United States joining the League of Nations. Also known as "the Battalion of Death". They were extreme isolationists and were t

Reason for Republicans Not Passing Treaty

it would be unwise to turn American decision over to a grou of foreign nations (the League of Nations). Opponents of the Treaty reasoned that America should stay out of such an international group and decide their own decisions. Led by Henry Cabot Lodge a

European nation bargaining

France demanded the Rhineland and Saar Valley (but didn't receive it; instead, the League got Saar Basin for 15 years and let self determination determine its fate). Italy demanded Fiume, a valuable seaport inhabited by Italians and Yugosalvs. Wilson comp

US promise to France

Promised that US and GB would aid France in case of another German invasion.

Treaty of Versailles

(WW) 1918, , Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to ackno

Wilson's attitude toward treaty

WIlson was not happy with the treaty, sensing that it was inadequate, and his popularity was down, but he did make a difference in that his going to Paris prevented the treaty from being purely imperialistic.

Wilson Return to America

WIlsn was hated by Hun-haters because they felt that the treaty wasn't harsh enough while the Irish denouced the League. The hyphenated Americans all felt that the treaty had not been fair to their home country.

Fourteen Reservations

sought to safeguard American sovereignty. COngress was esecially concerned with Article X, which morally bound the US to aid any member of L.O.N that was victimized by aggression, for Congress wanted to preserve its war-declaring problems.

Senate Vote of Treaty of Versaille

On Nov. 19, 1919 it was defeated by a vote of 55 to 39. 4/5 were okay with treaty unless the senate approved the pact with Lodge reservations tacked on. Vote brought up again in March 1920 but failed again to due WIlson telling Democrats to vote against t

Failure of the treaty

Due to Wilson's fued with Lodge, US isolatism, tradition, and disilusionment all contributed. Wilson also tried to go all or nothing.

Wilson's tour

Took a tour to gain the support for the treated but Senators Borah and Johnson attacked him right after. Won great welcome from Rocky Mountain and Pacific Coast Region

Puebo, Colorado Speech

highpoint of Wilson's tour but came to end after collapsing and several days later, had a stroke. Did not meet with Cabinet for 7 months after that.

solemn referendum

attempt to make the American people vote for the treaty

Election of 1920

Democrats nominated Cox (mildly progressive) and Franklin D. Roosevelt as VP. Republicans nominated Harding and Coolidge for VP. Harding won by a landslide. American membership in the League of Nations was dead.

French Security

They built up a military force without an ally, and Germany began to illegally do the same. This led to WWII.

Adolf Hitler

Surrendering of Germany and the disorder of the time was used by him to seize power of Germany, build up popularity, and drag Europe into war.