Ch 13 Toward a Global Economy

Main Economic Changes in Europe

South Europe Trade, North Europe Trade, Fairs, then soon direct trade. Separate trade initially, Main 2 big city states: Venice and Genoa

South Europe Trade (Economic Changes in Europe)

Italian city states grew rich from the Mediterranean trade with Muslims from the Middle East. This brought luxury goods including silk from China and spices from India.

North Europe Trade (Economic Changes in Europe)

The Hanseatic League - powerful trading cities, commercial networking traded bulk goods such as wool, grains, wood and fish.

Fairs (Economic Changes in Europe)

Regional markets set up from time to time in a central location. Merchants from the north and south came together to trade goods mainly at these fairs.

Direct Trade (Economic Changes in Europe)

This direct trade replaced commercial fairs by 1400s

Main Political Changes in Europe

Nation-States, Sovereign, Innovation, Partnerships, Warfare, Revenue, Bureaucracy. Europe able to surpass other parts of world in warfare technology, lots of fighting and wars between themselves - Military revolution

Nation-States (Political Changes in Europe)

A politically independent state whose people have a common culture and nationality

Sovereign (Political Changes in Europe)

Self governing and independent

Competition among nation-states led to: (Political Changes in Europe)

Innovation, Partnerships, and Warfare

Innovation (Political Changes in Europe)

Stronger and faster sailing ships, copy off and improve on other innovations

Partnerships (Political Changes in Europe)

Partner with bankers/merchants/investors to fund overseas ventures, standardized weights/measures, laws to protect property, national market formed

Warfare (Political Changes in Europe)

Hundred Years' War (France and England), Religious Wars (Catholic vs. Protestant states), Military Revolution (powerful armies, navies, weapons)

Revenue (Political Changes in Europe)

Income used to fund a nations expenses

Bureaucracy (Political Changes in Europe)

A complex system of officials and workers who manage the activities of a government

Reasons for European Exploration

Adventure and Ambition, Wealth, Technology, and Religion. "God, Glory & Gold!

Adventure and Ambition (reasons for exploration)

Iberian Kingdoms (Iberian peninsula = Spain and Portugal) had leaders with spirit and personality, individual explorers were curious

Religion (reasons for exploration)

Christian Militancy (continue anti-Muslim), missionaries to convert non-Christians

Wealth (reasons for exploration)

Expand borders, spice trade with Asia was lucrative (produced great deal of profit) - wanted to eliminate middlemen of Muslims and Italians, access to natural resources of Africa

Technology (reasons for exploration)

Shipbuilding changes, caravel (improved sailing ship), map improvements, improved navigational devices, shipboard canon, new understanding of ocean winds (realized winds go in circle patterns) - all allows for exploration

Navigational tools and necessities (reasons for exploration)

Tools like astrolabe, sextant, and the magnetic compass helped sailors. Shipboard cannon key to have to defend themselves on ships from other ships

Prince Henry

(Portuguese Ships reach India) Financed many other explorers, set up school for navigation in Portugal, did not go very far

Portuguese Trade

Portuguese trade along Africa, two key trade items (gold and slaves), Initially trading for cloth, grain, silver, horses, First big European traders in Africa

Bartolomeu Dias

Portuguese explorer, turned corner/rounded tip of Africa getting to Indian Ocean, Cape of Storms but then Cape of Good Hope because closer to Asia

Vasco de Gama

First explorer who gets around Africa and all the way to Asia, finally able to cut out middlemen

Pedro Cabral

Goes too West when trying to get around Africa - gets to Brazil (all of SA speaks Spanish except Brazil speaks Portuguese)

Christopher Columbus

Italian, takes many different voyages, many people think Earth was flat but scholars and explorers understood it was round, thought he was going to Asia/East Indies but found West Indies then died

Treaty of Tordesillas

Agreement that split all not-yet explored lands between Spain and Portugal, purpose was to try to eliminate war between Spain & Portugal

Amerigo Vespucci

Two trips across Atlantic, one for Spain then one for Portugal. Wrote letters about what he saw, described Western lands as "new world," then after mapmaker split lands into 2 continents he named southern one America after him.

Juan Ponce de Leon

Italian sent out by Spain, Got to what is now called America today

Vasco de Nunez de Balboa

Crossed Ismus (piece of land with water around it) of Panama and told everyone theres another big Ocean out there

Hernan Cortes

His army of conquistadors fought Native Americans and forged alliances, aimed to conquer Aztecs and accomplished this at cost of 100,000 Aztec lives, Spanish could do this bc of advanced technology, many helped Spanish because neighbors forced to do human

Francisco Pizarro

Incas fell to Spanish conquistadores of this person, he had small (only 168 men) army of foot soldiers and still beat them, they capture Inca ruler then Spaniards destroyed inca empire and looted amounts of gold and silver

John Cabot

Tried to find North West Passage (waterway to Asia)

Jacques Cartier

Tried to find North West Passage (waterway to Asia) but also went into Montreal

Henry Hudson

Tried to find North West Passage (waterway to Asia), discovered Hudson Bay and River

Ferdinand Magellan

Went all the way around world by ship (or at least was leader for most of journey, killed but crew carried on and made it around) - discovered new routes circumnavigating

Spanish Empire

West Indies (Islands of Caribbean sea), Mexico, Central America, and South America besides Brazil

First key resource from Spanish America and who mined this

Silver - Natives used to mine this. Made Spain very wealthy

How Spain used their wealth from silver resource

Bought imported goods (grains from Baltic and spices from Asia), then ship some to colony in Philippines so they could buy manufactured products/Asian luxury goods. Rest of money on wars

Second key resource extracted from Spanish America and who produced this

Sugar from West Indies and the slaves would make this

European country that colonized Brazil and resources gained

Portuguese colonized Brazil and gained sugarcane and brazilwood (made red dye)

Other European countries that established colonies in Americas and areas controlled. How did they compete with Spain?

English, Dutch and French set up bases in Caribbean islands, colonies were in coastal Canada, Virginia, New York and New England. Competing bc exporting agricultural products 2 Europe and providing Spanish American colonies w/ manufactured goods

Great Dying

Many diseases brought over from Europe and killed a lot of the American Indian population - previously isolated and never exposed to diseased (no resistance) until traders and settlers came from Europe

Indentured Servitude

System where person agreed to work for period of time (4-7 years) in return for being transported to Americas - they got a home and food

Reason that Europeans switched to slaves in American colonies

African slaves could survive as laborers better than servants - could do dangerous and tiring work and had better immunity to disease

Problem for trade between Europe and Asia

Portugal wanted to sail to Indies to trade for spices and other luxury goods then come home but Asians did not want/need European goods. Instead they wanted money (silver)

Intra-Asian trade and benefits for Europeans

European merchants carried food and goods from one part of Indies to another making profit on each trade - built up cargoes that could be exchanged for spices, textiles, porcelain and other goods. Europeans able to receive goods wanted from Asians. Take g

Portugese dominate shipping in Indian Ocean

Took control of key coastal towns and used naval advantage to dominate, Overpower merchant vessels/steal them, block access to trade routes, establish monopolies over trades

Portuguese Model of Expansion

Portuguese used great ships and weapons to control seas, established trading posts called factories (managed trade and finances), built big walls and fortresses to protect colonies/factories

2 European nations that eliminated Portugal from Asian trade

English and Dutch

2 Companies authorized by governments to trade in East Indies

Dutch East India Company and English East India Company

How Dutch dominated trade in East Indies

Hired naval officers to help establish and maintain outposts, negotiations with Asian officials after cannon incident, and set up factories in India and Japan

How English dominated trade in India

Less violent and got permission before putting in factory on foreign territory, negotiated trading rights with Mughal Empire and Indian officials, used silver to buy textiles then traded textiles in East Indies for pepper and spices, also carried cotton a

How did Britain gain dominance over Dutch in East Indian Trade

British took control of Indian territory and all of India - rich from Indian trade. Money gave them military power (helped with ships, weapons, warfare). Soon battled Dutch off ports, demands fell and profits reduced so in good place to take trade over

Mercantilism and how this was put to use

Philosophy behind merchant-friendly policies of governments because trade made countries wealthier and stronger - European gov did this by allying themselves with businesses and founded industries to become self-sufficient

Capitalism and three features of this

Economic system in which all resources are privately owned and markets determine how those resources are distributed. Three features = profit motive, accumulation of capital, and financial innovation


Person willing to take the risks involved in starting or running a business

Joint-Stock company

When two groups have joint ownership of a company - Dutch and English had this

Early 1700s European consumer demand shifted - what were key trade items?

Received porcelain and tea from Asian areas and sugar and tobacco from Americas - all lead to the tea party invention

Time period and numbers of TransAtlantic Slave Trade

1520s - 1860s, 80% of trade in 1700s, before 1600 800,000 Africans transported, 1650 - 1800 "Sugar boom years" and 7.5 million transported

Numbers of slaves involved in this trade

Four million Africans died in slave wars and forced marches to the coast, Eleven to twelve million Africans boarded slave ships, Nine to ten million survived the journey to become slaves in the Americas.

Indentured slavery

Could marry, had rights, eventually freedom, not property of people. Already had many of these in Europe so didn't really need slaves

Origins and destinations of slaves

Origins: West Africa (From Senegal to Angola)
Destinations: North and South Americas, West Indies (only 4-6% go to British North America)

History of Slavery

Slavery as old as civilization, part of Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Persians and Aztecs. Word "slave" comes from large number of Slavs taken from Southern Russia to work as unpaid laborers in Roman times

People that Initially took Africans out of Africa

Arabs in the Arab Trans Saharan Slave trade

Arab Trans-Saharan Slave Trade

Five million Africans traded to coasts of Indian Ocean, Middle East, North Africa, and Iberian Peninsula. Men became soldiers and laborers and women became concubines and servants. Fewer people affected, longer period of time, more like indentured servitu

Who initiates European slave trade

Portuguese initiate European slave trade in mid 1400s

3 Ways of Capturing slaves

Prisoners of war (most common way), payment of debt or punishment for crime, abducted by slave catchers (African and European raiders)

The March

Up to 40 Africans chained together, 40 to 400 miles traveled to coast, those ill or too weak to walk were left behind or killed

Slave forts and castle dungeons

Slaves held in captivity for weeks, months, and sometimes a year or so

Portuguese Fort Elmina

In present day Ghana, where slaves were kept before getting sold, highly fortified and has water around

Slaves trade exchanged for these goods

Slaves (branded and humiliated before sold) exchanged for iron, cloth, firearms, alcohol and gunpowder

The Great (Atlantic) Circuit

Goods carried from Europe to Africa for exchange, Human cargo transported to the Americas, Slaves exchanged for sugar, tobacco or other products, ships return goods to Europe

Triangular Trade

Rum goes from English Colonies to Africa in exchange for slaves, they are transported to the West Indies in exchange for molasses and sugar, then this is then shipped to the English colonies to make rum. (Specific trade within circuit, does not include Eu

Life for slaves on the ships

Naked and chained together, unsanitary conditions (little ventilation, blood, excrement, vomit), disease (#1 reason for high death rates), rape and torture, 10-20% die during journey, 12-20 weeks then later 5-8 weeks later

Slave resistance on ship

450 slave rebellions estimated (both on board and prior to boarding), Suicide by jumping overboard or starvation (many force-fed regardless)

Impact of Slave trade in Africa

Significant loss in population (but recovers from proportion of fertile women remaining coupled with introduction of new foods from Americas), families torn apart, increase of civil war and strife (slave trade and gun introduction)

Impact of Slave trade in Americas

Provided labor crucial for development of colonies, expertise in agriculture (ex. Rice growing in SC), cultural diffusion (African art, music, food, etc), mixed races

Why not Amerindians or indentured servants for slaves?

American Indians susceptible to disease, could escape, and had no strong background in agriculture. Indentured servants could escape, were short term (not hereditary) and small in supply

Reasons Africans as slaves

Skin color sticks out (hard to escape), resistance to disease, strength, background in agriculture, inexhaustible supply, racism (Africans seen less than human), not christians (less than human)

Columbian Exchange

Transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between Eastern and Western hemispheres. Also exchanges of people, customs, ideas and more.

Most deadly disease to Amerindians


Animal with greatest impact on Amerindians


What "New World" foods revolutionized agriculture in Europe

Potatoes and corn

What "New World" foods revolutionized agriculture in Africa

Cassava and corn

Overall impact of Columbian exchange

Led to increase in world population because of the introduction of new food crops