History Final Exam Review


One of the early proto-Greek peoples from 2600 BCE to 1500 BCE. Inhabitants of the island of Crete. Their site of Knossos is pictured above.


a group of people who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C.; leading city called Mycenae which could withstand any attack; nobles lived in splendor; these people invaded many surrounding kingdoms. Influenced by the Minoan Culture, which became Gr

Geography of Greece: Oceans

The sea shaped Greek civilization just as rivers shaped the ancient civilizations of Egypt, the Fertile Crescent, India, and China. In one sense, the Greeks did not live on a land but around a sea. Greeks rarely had to travel more than 85 miles to reach t

Geography of Greece: Land

Rugged mountains covered about three-fourths of ancient Greece. The mountain chains ran mainly from northwest to southeast along the Balkan Peninsula. Mountains divided the land into a number of different regions. This significantly influenced Greek polit

Geography of Greece: Climate

Climate was the third important environmental influence on Greek civilization. Greece has a varied climate, with temperatures averaging 48 degrees Fahrenheit in the winter and 80 degrees Fahrenheit in the summer. In ancient times, these moderate temperatu


According to tradition, a new group of people, the Dorians (DAWR�ee�uhnz), moved into the war-torn countryside. The Dorians spoke a dialect of Greek and may have been distant relatives of the Bronze Age Greeks.
The Dorians were far less advanced than the


located on eastern Mediterranean coast; invented the alphabet which used sounds rather than symbols like cuneiform


The Blind Poet, known for his epics the Iliad and the Odyssey. He taught the ideals of courage and honor, the arete to strive for excellence, the role of women to be a good wife and be there for her husband, education and the model of heroism, and that me


The Greeks developed a rich set of myths, or traditional stories, about their gods. The works of Homer and another epic, Theogony by Hesiod, are the source of much of Greek mythology. Through the myths, the Greeks sought to understand the mysteries of nat

Greek Gods

Greeks attributed human qualities, such as love, hate, and jealousy, to their gods. The gods quarreled and competed with each other constantly. However, unlike humans, the gods lived forever. Zeus, the ruler of the gods, lived on Mount Olympus with his wi

Trojan War

During the 1200s B.C., the Mycenaeans fought a ten-year war against Troy, an independent trading city located in Anatolia. According to legend, a Greek army besieged and destroyed Troy because a Trojan prince had kidnapped Helen, the beautiful wife of a G


Form of government in which power is centralized into a local city-state.
By 750 B.C., the city-state, or polis, was the fundamental political unit in ancient Greece. A polis was made up of a city and its surrounding countryside, which included numerous v


At the agora, or marketplace, or on a fortified hilltop called an acropolis (uh�KRAHP�uh�lihs), citizens gathered to discuss city government.

Types of Democracy

Direct democracy- citizens vote directly on issues, most countries too large and complex
Direct, Representative, Plebiscitary and Deliberative.

Direct Democracy

The introduction of direct democracy, a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives, was an important legacy of Periclean Athens. Few other city-states practiced this style of government. In Athens, male citizens who

Overall View of Governments

Forms of Government
� State ruled by a king
� Rule is hereditary
� Some rulers claim divine right
� Practiced in Mycenae by 2000 B.C.
� State ruled by nobility
� Rule is hereditary and based on family ties, social rank, wealth
� Socia


The idea of representative government also began to take root in some city-states, particularly Athens. Like other city-states, Athens went through power struggles between rich and poor. However, Athenians avoided major political upheavals by making timel


A form of government in which power is vested in hereditary kings and queens who govern in the interests of all. In some Greek city-states, a single person, called a king, ruled in a government called a monarchy


A government in which the ruling power is in the hands of a few people.
Later, as trade expanded, a new class of wealthy merchants and artisans emerged in some cities. When these groups became dissatisfied with aristocratic rule, they sometimes took power


Others adopted an aristocracy, a government ruled by a small group of noble, landowning families. These very rich families often gained political power after serving in a king's military cavalry.


The first step toward democracy came when a nobleman named Draco took power. In 621 B.C., Draco developed a legal code based on the idea that all Athenians, rich and poor, were equal under the law. Draco's code dealt very harshly with criminals, making de


The first step toward democracy came when a nobleman named Draco took power. In 621 B.C., Draco developed a legal code based on the idea that all Athenians, rich and poor, were equal under the law. Draco's code dealt very harshly with criminals, making de


Around 500 B.C., the Athenian leader Cleisthenes (KLYS�thuh�NEEZ) introduced further reforms. He broke up the power of the nobility by organizing citizens into ten groups based on where they lived rather than on their wealth. He also increased the power o

Athenian Education

For the most part, only the sons of wealthy families received formal education. Schooling began around the age of seven and largely prepared boys to be good citizens. They studied reading, grammar, poetry, history, mathe- matics, and music. Because citize


peasants forced to stay on the land they worked. Each year, the Spartans demanded half of the helots' crops.

Spartan Government

Spartan government had several branches. An assembly, which was composed of all Spartan citizens, elected officials and voted on major issues. The Council of Elders, made up of 30 older citizens, proposed laws on which the assembly voted. Five elected off

Spartan Daily Life

From around 600 until 371 B.C., Sparta had the most powerful army in Greece. However, the Spartan people paid a high price for their military supremacy. All forms of individual expression were discouraged. As a result, Spartans did not value the arts, lit


king of Sparta and hero of the battle of Thermopylae where he was killed by the Persians (died in 480 BC)

Greek Religion

polytheistic, gods have certain jobs, gods are not omnicient or always just, didn't have holy scriptures, built temples and had festivals for gods, trying to keep gods happy, went to oracle, gave offerings

Greco-Persian Wars

Danger of a helot revolt led Sparta to become a military state. Struggles between rich and poor led Athens to become a democracy. The greatest danger of all� invasion by Persian armies�moved Sparta and Athens alike to their greatest glory.Two major Persia

Greco-Persian Wars: Who

Greece vs. Persia
Pheidippides, Xerxes, Thermistocles

GPW: Who Pheidippides

According to tradition, army leaders chose a young runner named Pheidippides (fy�DIP�uh�DEEZ) to race back to Athens. He brought news of the Persian defeat so that Athenians would not give up the city without a fight. Dashing the 26 miles from Marathon to


son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.

Greco-Persian Wars: When

about 490-480b BC

Greco-Persian Wars: Where


Greco-Persian Wars: Cause and Effect

Greek city-states felt a new sense of confidence and freedom. During the 470s, Athens emerged as the leader of the Delian League, which had grown to some 200 city-states. Athens began to use its power to control the other league members. In time, these ci

Greco-Persian Wars: Significance

Athens took over the Delian league and gained power of the 200 city-states. The victory over the persians lead Athens to emerge into a prosperous empire and leader of one of the largest alliances ever. Now, Athens is in it's golden age

Delian League

The following year, several Greek city-states formed an alliance called the Delian (DEE�lee�uhn) League. (The alliance took its name from Delos, the island in the Aegean Sea where it had its headquarters.) League members continued to press the war against


Themistocles, an Athenian leader, convinced them to evacuate the city and fight at sea. They positioned their fleet in a narrow channel near the island of Salamis (SAL�uh�mihs), a few miles southwest of Athens.

Peloponnesian War: Who

Sparta vs. Athens

Peloponnesian War: What

The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism in the Aegean region. It went on for over 20 years. Ultimately, Sparta prevailed but both were weakened sufficient to be soon conquered by Macedonians, later leading to the Hellenistic Empire and A

Peloponnesian War: Where

see map

Peloponnesian War: When

431-404 BC

Peloponnesian War: C/E

The expedition of Athens ended with a crushing defeat in 413 B.C. Somehow, a terribly weakened Athens fended off Spartan attacks for another nine years. Finally, in 404 B.C., the Athenians and their allies surrendered. Athens had lost its empire, power, a

Peloponnesian War: Significance


Greek Philospohers

After the war, many Athenians lost confidence in democratic government and began to question their values. In this time of uncertainty, several great thinkers appeared. They were determined to seek the truth, no matter where the search led them. The Greek


Greek and Phoenician warship of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. It was sleek and light, powered by 170 oars arranged in three vertical tiers. Manned by skilled sailors, it was capable of short bursts of speed and complex maneuvers.


a cruel and oppressive dictator. Powerful individuals, usually nobles or other wealthy citizens, sometimes seized control of the government by appealing to the common people for support. Rather, they were looked upon as leaders who would work for the inte


A powerful Greek miliary polis that was often at war with Athens. Used slaves known as helots to provide agricultural labor.

Darius I

Third ruler of the Persian Empire (r. 521-486 BCE). He crushed the widespread initial resistance to his rule and gave all major government posts to Persians rather than to Medes. He established a system of provinces and tribute, began construction of Pers


son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.
(c. 519-465 BC) King of Persia; his armies invaded Greece but were eventually defeated by the Greeks.


An Athenian leader who transformed Athens into a community of scientists, philosophers, poets, dramatists, artists, and architects and who was a big promoter of democracy.

Pericles' reforms

Honest and fair, Pericles held onto popular support during the Athenian Golden age. He so dominated the life of Athens from 461 to 429 B.C. that this period often is called the Age of Pericles. He had three goals: (1) to strengthen Athenian democracy,+ pu

Classical philosophers

arose in the 6th century BCE and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire. It dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology, logi

Athens' Golden Age

This was a period in greek times when Athens was at peace and wealth. Pericles was the ruler of Greek at this time, huge suporter of the arts and changed to direct democracy in Greece.


This city was the seat of Greek art, science, and philosophy. Paul visited this city during his second missionary journey and spoke to the citizens about their altar to the unknown god.
A city-state of ancient Greece that was first to have a democracy; al

Athenian Art

Phidias and other sculptors during this golden age aimed to create figures that were graceful, strong, and perfectly formed. Their faces showed neither joy nor anger, only serenity. Greek sculptors also tried to capture the grace of the idealized human bo


a Greek who lived in Athens for a time, pioneered the accurate reporting of events. His book on the Persian Wars is considered the first work of history.


However, the greatest historian of the classical age was the Athenian (thoo�SID�ih�DEEZ). He believed that certain types of events and political situations recur over time. Studying those events and situations, he felt, would aid in understanding the pres


A large temple dedicated to the goddess Athena on the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. It was built in the 5th century BCE, during the Athenian golden age. The project was directed by Pericles.


The Greeks wrote two kinds of drama�tragedy and comedy. A tragedy was a serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war, or betrayal. These dramas featured a main character, or tragic hero. The hero usually was an important person and often gift


In contrast to Greek tragedies, a comedy contained scenes filled with slapstick situations and crude humor. Playwrights often made fun of politics and respected people and ideas of the time. Aristophanes (AR�ih�STAHF�uh�neez) wrote the first great comedie


One critic of the Sophists was Socrates (SAHK�ruh�TEEZ). Unlike the Sophists, he believed that absolute standards did exist for truth and justice, question themselves and their moral character. In 399 B.C., when Socrates was about 70 years old, he was bro


A student of Socrates, wrote down their conversations. Sometime in the 370s B.C., Plato wrote his most famous work, The Republic about a perfectly governed society. 3 groups of citizens" artisans, warriors, ruling class, greatest mind=philosopher king. Pl


questioned the nature of the world and of human belief, thought, and knowledge. He invented a method for arguing according to rules of logic. worked in the fields of psychology, physics, and biology. basis of the scientific method Aristotle accepted the k


Demosthenes (dee�MAHS�thuh�NEEZ), the Athenian orator, tried to warn the Greeks of the threat Philip and his army posed. He urged them to unite against Philip. However, the Greek city-states could not agree on any single policy. Finally, in 338 B.C., Athe


a group of people who lived in Macedonia and were grouped into tribes. They were referred to as barbarians by the Greeks.
society under the rule of Philip of Macedon who conquered Greece; preserved Greek culture

Philip of Macedon

Invaded Greece in 338 B.C.E. and established unity after winning the battle of Chaeronea. He organized the polei intoan alliance known as the League of Corinth.

Alexander the Great

Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East.
He and his father defeated and united the weakened Greek city-states and he defeated th

Alexander the Great Early Life

Although Alexander was only 20 years old when he became king, he was well prepared to lead. Under Aristotle's teaching, Alexander had learned science, geography, and literature. Alexander especially enjoyed Homer's description of the heroic deeds performe

Darius II

Alexander's victory at Granicus alarmed the Persian
king, Darius III. Vowing to crush the invaders, he raised a
huge army of between 50,000 and 75,000 men to face the
Macedonians near Issus. Realizing that he was outnumbered,
Alexander surprised his enemi

Conquering Persia: Alexander the Great

Alexander marched into Egypt, a Persian territory, in 332 B.C. The Egyptians welcomed Alexander as a liberator. They crowned him pharaoh�or god-king. During his time in Egypt, Alexander founded the city of Alexandria at the mouth of the Nile. After leavin

Significance of Alexander the Great

Spread Greek (eventually Roman) culture through a process called Hellenization. Even though the Romans would later take over the culture remained the same. Educated people spoke Greek. Romans needed roads to get stuff to their troops. The benefits of Hell

Spread of Hellenism

..., cities and kingdoms had a monarchy in place; kings establish cities and polis no longer had power; hellenistic city resembled modern city
brought to India by Alexander the Great; the principles and ideals associated with classical Greek civilization,


An ancient Greek philosophy that became popular amongst many notable Romans. Emphasis on ethics. They considered destructive emotions to be the result of errors in judgment, and that a wise person would repress emotions, especially negative ones and that

Geography of rome

Rome was built on seven rolling hills at a curve on the Tiber River, near the center of the Italian peninsula. It was midway between the Alps and Italy's southern tip. Rome also was near the midpoint of the Mediterranean Sea.

Romulus and Remus

Traditional story of how Rome began. Twins abandoned and rescued by a wolf, raised by a shepherd . Grew to build Rome. Romulus later killed Remus

Tarquin the Proud

Last king of Rome
7th Etruscan king, last king of Rome, a harsh tyrant driven from power in 509 B.C.
The last of the Roman kings who was known for his abusive rule. He was finally driven from the throne in 510 B.C., and led the Romans to declare they woul


A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws.
A form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for thei


A member of one of the noble families of the ancient Roman Republic, which before the third century B.C. had exclusive rights to the Senate and the magistracies.
Wealthy, noble people of Rome that could be elected to rule Rome, small minority of the popul


All non-land-owning, free men in Ancient Rome
Rome's common people, including peasants, artisans, craftsmen, and traders, majority of the population. As traders, many became as wealthy as patricians. The common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up

Roman tribunes

Rome's leaders allowed the plebeians to form their own assembly and elect representatives
In time, Rome's leaders allowed the plebeians to form their own assembly and elect representatives called tribunes. Tribunes protected the rights of the plebeians fr

Twelve Tables

With laws unwritten, patrician officials often interpreted the law to suit themselves. In 451 B.C., a group of ten officials began writing down Rome's laws. The laws were carved on twelve tablets, or tables, and hung in the Forum. They became the basis fo

Organization of Roman republic

governed by a complex constitution, which centred on the principles of a separation of powers and checks and balances. The Constitution of the Roman Republic was not formal or even official, as it was largely unwritten, uncodified, and constantly evolving


Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
A chief executive officer of the Roman Republic; two were elected each year, one to run the government and one to lead


A group of 300 men elected to govern Rome in the Roman Republic.
The senate was the aristocratic branch of Rome's government. It had both legislative and administrative functions in the republic. Its 300 members were cho- sen from the upper class of Roman


A ruler who has complete power over a countryIn times of crisis, the republic could appoint a dictator�a leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army. A dictator's power lasted for only six months. Dictators were chosen by the consuls a

Roman Architectural advances

invented basics of engineering and architecture was very technologically advanced
arches, vaults, domes, roads

Roman Military

Mans duty to fight must be in army 10 years before you can be on the senate, Rome slowly conquered all of the Italian peninsula
All landowners had to serve, was divided in to legions, every soldier carries all their own stuff and does all their own work

Roman Military: Organization

legions supported by calvaries

Roman Military Tactics

Rome had different laws and treatment for different parts of its conquered territory. The neighboring Latins on the Tiber became full citizens of Rome. In territories farther from Rome, conquered peoples enjoyed all the rights of Roman citizenship except

Punic Wars: Who

Rome vs. Carthage

Punic Wars: What

Power struggle, located near eachother and Carthage supplied a direct threat to the powerful Romans. They soon went to war from 264-146 BC

Punic Wars: Where

Roman Empire
Sicily, Spain, France, Alps,

Punic Wars: C/E

Finally, the Romans found a daring military leader to match Hannibal's boldness. A general named Scipio (SIHP�ee�oh) devised a plan to attack Carthage. This strategy forced Hannibal to return to defend his native city. In 202 B.C., at Zama near Carthage,

Punic Wars: Significance

Rome now dominated the western Mediterranean


This city has existed for nearly 3,000 years, developing from a Phoenician colony of the 1st millennium BC into the capital of the Carthaginian Empire. The expanding Roman Republic took control of many of its outposts after the two Punic Wars.
City locate


Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.
Leader of the Carthaginians during the Second Punic WarThe mastermind behind the wa

Roman Republic

The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate.
This establishment consisted of the Senate with two consuls who were elected by an assembly dominated by hereditary aristocrats known as patricians.

Roman Republic: Basic structure

Two brothers, Tiberius and Gaius (GUY�us) Gracchus (GRAK�us), attempted to help Rome's poor. As tribunes, they proposed such reforms as limiting the size of estates and giving land to the poor. Tiberius spoke eloquently about the plight of the landless fo

Roman Republic: Weaknesses

Rome's increasing wealth and expanding boundaries brought many problems. The most serious were growing discontent among the lower classes of society and a breakdown in military order. These problems led to a shakeup of the republic�and the emergence of a

Gracchus Brothers

Two brothers, Tiberius and Gaius (GUY�us) Gracchus (GRAK�us), attempted to help Rome's poor. As tribunes, they proposed such reforms as limiting the size of estates and giving land to the poor.The brothers made enemies of numerous senators, who felt threa

Roman Republic: Reasons for Fall

Rome's increasing wealth and expanding boundaries brought many problems. The most serious were growing discontent among the lower classes of society and a breakdown in military order. These problems led to a shakeup of the republic�and the emergence of a


A Roman gladiator who led the most serious slave revolt in Roman history from 73 to 71 B.C.E.).
Roman slave who led a rebellion against the Roman army and was later crucified with 6,000 of his followers
Gladiator who led a revolt in Sicily because the sla

Pax Romana

Rome was at the peak of its power from the beginning of Augustus's rule in 27 B.C. to A.D. 180. For 207 years, peace reigned throughout the empire, except for some fighting with tribes along the borders. This period of peace and pros- perity is known as t

Servile Wars/Slave Revolts

Series of slave revolts in the late Roman-Republic.

Servile Wars: Cause and Effect

Former veterans were loosing their land and becoming slaves. They revolted against this and it contributed to the end of the Roman Republic. , lead to inflation in the economy, rising wealth of the patricians, etc.

Julius Caesar

During a civil war the Roman Senate allowed him to become a dictator but he refused to give it up and the senate eventually killed him. But his name came to mean "emperor".
Made dictator for life in 45 BCE, after conquering Gaul, assassinated in 44 BCE by

Caesar's Reforms

Caesar governed as an absolute ruler, one who has total power. However, he started a number of reforms. He granted Roman citizenship to many people in the provinces. He expanded the senate, adding friends and supporters from Italy and other regions. Caesa

First Triumvirate

60 BCE, unofficial coalition between Julius Caesar, Pompey, and CrassusCaesar was a strong leader and a genius at military strategy. Following tradition, he served only one year as consul. He then appointed himself governor of Gaul (now France). During 58

Second Triumvirate

Made by the Adoptive son of Julius Caesar and included Marc Anthony, Octavian, and a third less important member Lepidus. They split the empire between them with Octavian ruling Rome, Anthony Egypt and Lepidus Africa. Octavian would gain political power i

Augustus (Octavian)

part of the second triumvirate. ceasar's heir. takes control of the west after Caesar dies. after marc antony dies, he takes control over the whole empire. becomes the 1st emperor. starts hiring people who were hired for jobs, leads to a boom in efficienc

Traditional religion in ancient Rome

Religion in ancient Rome encompasses the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the adopted religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule. The Romans thought of themselves

Imperial Culture

By the time of the empire, wealth and social status made huge differences in how people lived. Classes had little in common. The rich lived extravagantly. They spent large sums of money on homes, gardens, slaves, and lux- uries. They gave banquets that la

Social structure and mobility of ancient Rome

social disorganization theory - structural and cultural conditions of the neighborhood affect criminal behavior. Strong social structure limits crime; consequently, a weak social structure leads to a lot of crime, see culture, large gap between the rich a


(245-313) Emperor of Rome who was responsible for dividing Rome into different provinces and districts. Eventually, the eastern portions of the Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire.
Roman emperor of 284 C.E. Attempted to deal with fall of Roman Emp


Roman emperor from about 280 to 337 C.E.; the first Roman emperor to become a Christian.
He had marched to the Tiber River at Rome to battle his chief rival. On the day before the battle at Milvian Bridge, Constantine prayed for divine help. He reported t

Edict of Milan

313 CE Constantine makes Christianity the primary religion of the Roman Empire
(313 CE) Proclamation by the Roman Emperor Constantine outlawing the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire.

Edict of Milan: Cause and Effect

Promoted Religious tolerance, ended the persecution of christians, acceptance of christianity, allowed it to spread

Decline of the Roman Republic

Political instability and use of mercenary armies undermined the security of the empire
The fall of the Roman Empire came to be due to political instability, weakening of the Roman military, and natural disasters.
After the Pax Romana, the Roman Empire st

Decline of the Roman Empire

Hostile tribes outside the bound- aries of the empire and pirates on the Mediterranean Sea disrupted trade. Having reached their limit of expansion, the Romans lacked new sources of gold and silver. Desperate for revenue, the government raised taxes. It a


A Jew from Galilee in northern Israel who sought to reform Jewish beliefs and practices. He was executed as a revolutionary by the Romans. He is the basis of the world's largest religion.
A Jew from Galilee in northern Israel. A teacher and prophet whose


Some of the Gospels are thought to have been written by one or more of Jesus' disciples, or pupils. These 12 men

Basics of Christianity

In spite of the prevalence of Christianity, many people find themselves wondering what Christians believe.
one God, sent his son to save everyone and die

Appeal of Christianity

poor desperate Romans found hope in Jesus' teaching that all souls were created equal and that eternal happiness and everlasting life in heaven awaits all true believers
It had hope and anyone could join the religion It promises life after you die and it


First pope
A.D. 5-67 One of the 12 apostles of Jesus; Roman Catholics consider him to be the first pope, bishop of Rome
The apostle Peter had traveled to Rome from Jerusalem and became the first bishop there. According to tradition, Jesus referred to Pete

Perspective on Jesus

Liked by the commons, Jewish community, poor, etc. Not liked by those in power, seen as a threat.


Stories rooted in daily life that use symbolism or allegory as a teaching tool and that usually have a surprise ending.
a fictitious narrative or allegory (usually something that might occur in real life) used to illustrate and explain moral or spiritual

Roman Catholic Church

the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
Church established in western Europe during the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages with its head being the bishop of Rome or pope.

Great Schism

in 1054 this severing of relations divided medieval Christianity into the already distinct Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches, which later became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, respectively. Relations between

Protestant Reformation

A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Churc

Persecution of Christians

some roman emperors persecuted christians because they were seen as bad citizens for refusing to worship the emperor and state gods
Early Christians were persecuted by the Romans for refusing to worship the roman gods
Christians also posed a problem for R


One of the most important figures in the spread of Christianity, he worked to spread Jesus's teachings and wrote letters that explained key ideas of Christianity.
One man, the apostle Paul, had enormous influence on Christianity's development. Paul was a


The holy book of Christians.

Vatican City

The pope lives and works in the smallest country in the world

Ten Commandments

A set of laws for responsible behavior, which, according to the Bible, were given to Moses by God.
The Law of Moses; the Decalogue; a summary of the Old Law; God's moral teachings about right relationship with God and others that can be applied in all pla

Sermon on the Mount

A part of the Gospel according to Matthew in which Jesus preaches important moral teachings, including the Beatitudes
A collection of Jesus' teachings on many important topics, which the Gospel of Matthew presents as a speech given by Jesus.

Five Pillars of Islam

Faith To become a Muslim, a person has to testify to the following statement of faith: "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." This simple statement is heard again and again in Islamic rituals and in Muslim daily life.
� Praye

Geography of the Middle East

Lots of oil, between Africa, Asia, and Europe. Desert, Arabian peninsula, Nile river, Red Sea, Fertile Crescent. Maghreb


During the time of the monarchy in Israel, these people "spoke" for God.


Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam.While
Muhammad lived, his followers
memorized and recited the revelations he received from Gabriel. Soon after


A city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews.


The last prophet believed by Muslims who talked to the Archangel Gabriel and whose life teachings is compiled in the Hadith.
After much soul-searching, Muhammad came to believe that the Lord who spoke to him through Gabriel was Allah. Muhammad became conv


Arabic word for God, one and only god


City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
During certain holy months, caravans stopped in Mecca, a city in west- ern Arabia. They brought religious pilgrims who came to worship at an ancient shr


City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca.
The Hijrah to Yathrib marked a turning point for Muhammad. He attracted many devoted followers. Later, Yathrib was renamed Medina.


Major panethnic group. Primarily inhabit Western Africa, North Africa, parts of the Horn of Africa and other areas in the Arab world. Most speak Arabic- in Afro-Asiatic family. Most are Muslim, other percent are Catholic and Orthodox

People of the Middle East

more tolerant of other religions because those people came from all over Europe to settle there. Different cultures and religions lived side by side.

Middle East Customs

The culture of the Middle East is diverse and varied. It has been influenced by many different historical movements and civilizations and is richly diverse and intricate. Middle Eastern culture reflects the dichotomy between ancient and modern, traditiona

Beliefs and traditions of the Middle East

Women in Islam

Women in Islam are required to follow primary Islamic laws such as the Quran and Hadiths. Those religious scriptures impact their cultural and daily life by allowing them the right to education, employment, rights to inheritance, etc. Women had more right

Shi'a Muslims

the second largest (15%) denomination of Islam; believe that the successor of Muhammad should be a relative.
� Believe that Ali, the Prophet's son-in-law, should have succeeded Muhammad
� Believe that all Muslim rulers should be descended from Muhammad; d

Sunni Muslims

Believe that any capable Muslim should rule� Believe that the first four caliphs were "rightly guided"
Believe that Muslim rulers should follow the Sunna, or Muhammad's example
Claim that the Shi'a have distorted the meaning of various passages in the Qur


Islamic empire ruled by those believed to be the successors to the Prophet Muhammad.

What connections do civilizations have with one another when they do not share the same geographic location, racial and ethnic makeup, religion, or time period?
(Consider three categories of similarities for your XYZ thesis.)


What effect does geography have on the development of a civilization? (Consider three categories of contributing factors for your XYZ thesis.)


What characteristics and values are most important for great leadership? (Consider three categories of examples for your XYZ thesis.)