a process whereby practitioners use tools and techniques and facilities to engage in unorganized security and treatment functions to correct criminal tendencies among the offender population.
5 segments the system consists of
law enforcement, courts, corrections, juvenile justice system, victim services.
The contention that the use of harsh punishments sensitizes people to violence and teaches them to use it
Trial by Ordeal
very dangerous and/or impossible tests to prove the guilt or innocence of the accused, emerged as church's equivalent to a legal proceeding.
Code of Hammurabi
earliest known written codes of law and corresponding punishment
reflected instinctive desire for humans who have been harmed to seek revenge. (equal retaliation)
places of confinement that are simply cages
Examples of trial by ordeal
ordeal of hot water, animal or warrior.
a place of refuge or asylum
Crimes against society or a social group that could include sacrilege, witchcraft, treason, or incest.
retaliation through humiliation
throughout early parts of European history, number of punishments utilized to humiliate and embarrass offenders. examples include gag, bridle, ducking stool...
crimes against an individual that could include physical injury, damage to a person's property, or theft
whipping was the mostly used form, often administered in public, up until the 1700s it was the most frequent form of punishment
the legally authorized killing of someone as punishment for a crime.
the most frequently used form today
most frequent used form throughout history
exile from society
became nearly ideal solution, costs minimal, and provided sources of labor for new colonies
included both free persons and offenders, essentially a form of slavery with a fixed term of service
Age of Enlightenment
in 1700s, a new mindset began to developed throughout history and many philosophers of modern history found their place and let their mark
Founder of Pennsylvania, leader of Quakers and advocate of religious freedom and individual rights. only American of the six major correctional thinkers
hard labor was more effective punishment, first time offenders received loss of liberty as punishment in and of itself.
wrote Persian letters, instrumental in illustrating abuses of criminal law in both France and Europe
became involved in number of trials that challenged traditional ideas, intrigues with inequalities in government and among the wealthy, and imprisoned in Bastille and exiled to England.
known as the father of classical school of criminology, wrote an essay on crimes and punishments
punishments must be useful, purposeful, and reasonable
appointed the sheriff of bedforshire, disliked system of goals being paid by offender, also examined prisoners throughout Europe, and drafted the state of prisons treatise in 1977
leading advocate for use of graduated penalties during this time, strongly influenced by the work of Beccaria, made the pancoptican prison design
a term that explains that humans seen to weigh pleasure and plain outcomes when deciding to engage in criminal behavior
Old Newgate Prison
first official structured prison in the u.s
Dr. Benjamin Rush
met with other reformers to consider potential changed penal codes among the colonies
Walnut Street Jail
first attempt to actually incarcerate inmates with purpose of reform
An early place of confinement in Rome using primitive dungeons built under the main sewer.
Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons
first official prison reform group
An early system of U.S. penology in which inmates were kept completely in solitary cells and did everything in their cells
Western State Penitentiary
Part of the Pennsylvania system located outside of Pittsburgh.
Eastern State Penitentiary
Part of the Pennsylvania system located near Philadelphia.
a system of prison administration in which prisoners were isolated in cells at night but allowed to congregate during the day for work duty and meals, but in total silence
set of laws for slaves where they were punished differently
National Prison Association
Declaration of principles - Change how inmates were punished, classification, indeterminate sentencing
first reformatory prison
A system in which offenders receive a certain number of points at the time of sentencing, based on the severity of their crime. Prisoners can reduce their term and gain release by earning marks to reduce these points through labor, good behavior, and educ
mental health approach incorporating fields such as psychology and biology
Looking at external environment for causes of crime and the means to reduce criminality
Crime Control Model
Increasing the use of longer sentences, the death penalty, and intensive supervision probation
Top three in corrections
Texas, California, & Florida