JUST 2009 CH 1


a process whereby practitioners use tools and techniques and facilities to engage in unorganized security and treatment functions to correct criminal tendencies among the offender population.

5 segments the system consists of

law enforcement, courts, corrections, juvenile justice system, victim services.

Brutalization Hypothesis

The contention that the use of harsh punishments sensitizes people to violence and teaches them to use it

Trial by Ordeal

very dangerous and/or impossible tests to prove the guilt or innocence of the accused, emerged as church's equivalent to a legal proceeding.

Code of Hammurabi

earliest known written codes of law and corresponding punishment

Lex Talionis

reflected instinctive desire for humans who have been harmed to seek revenge. (equal retaliation)


places of confinement that are simply cages

Examples of trial by ordeal

ordeal of hot water, animal or warrior.


a place of refuge or asylum

public wrongs

Crimes against society or a social group that could include sacrilege, witchcraft, treason, or incest.

retaliation through humiliation

throughout early parts of European history, number of punishments utilized to humiliate and embarrass offenders. examples include gag, bridle, ducking stool...

Private wrongs

crimes against an individual that could include physical injury, damage to a person's property, or theft

corporal punishment

whipping was the mostly used form, often administered in public, up until the 1700s it was the most frequent form of punishment

capital punishment

the legally authorized killing of someone as punishment for a crime.

lethal injection

the most frequently used form today


most frequent used form throughout history


exile from society

Transporting Offenders

became nearly ideal solution, costs minimal, and provided sources of labor for new colonies

Indentured Servitude

included both free persons and offenders, essentially a form of slavery with a fixed term of service

Age of Enlightenment

in 1700s, a new mindset began to developed throughout history and many philosophers of modern history found their place and let their mark

William Penn

Founder of Pennsylvania, leader of Quakers and advocate of religious freedom and individual rights. only American of the six major correctional thinkers

great law

hard labor was more effective punishment, first time offenders received loss of liberty as punishment in and of itself.

Charles Montesquieu

wrote Persian letters, instrumental in illustrating abuses of criminal law in both France and Europe

Francis Voltaire

became involved in number of trials that challenged traditional ideas, intrigues with inequalities in government and among the wealthy, and imprisoned in Bastille and exiled to England.

Cesare Beccaria

known as the father of classical school of criminology, wrote an essay on crimes and punishments

Classical Criminology

punishments must be useful, purposeful, and reasonable

John Howard

appointed the sheriff of bedforshire, disliked system of goals being paid by offender, also examined prisoners throughout Europe, and drafted the state of prisons treatise in 1977

Jeremy Bentham

leading advocate for use of graduated penalties during this time, strongly influenced by the work of Beccaria, made the pancoptican prison design

Hedonistic Calculus

a term that explains that humans seen to weigh pleasure and plain outcomes when deciding to engage in criminal behavior

Old Newgate Prison

first official structured prison in the u.s

Dr. Benjamin Rush

met with other reformers to consider potential changed penal codes among the colonies

Walnut Street Jail

first attempt to actually incarcerate inmates with purpose of reform

Mamertine Prison

An early place of confinement in Rome using primitive dungeons built under the main sewer.

Roman Law

civil death

Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons

first official prison reform group

Pennsylvania System

An early system of U.S. penology in which inmates were kept completely in solitary cells and did everything in their cells

Western State Penitentiary

Part of the Pennsylvania system located outside of Pittsburgh.

Eastern State Penitentiary

Part of the Pennsylvania system located near Philadelphia.

Auburn System

a system of prison administration in which prisoners were isolated in cells at night but allowed to congregate during the day for work duty and meals, but in total silence

Black Codes

set of laws for slaves where they were punished differently

National Prison Association

Declaration of principles - Change how inmates were punished, classification, indeterminate sentencing

Elmira Reformatory

first reformatory prison

mark system

A system in which offenders receive a certain number of points at the time of sentencing, based on the severity of their crime. Prisoners can reduce their term and gain release by earning marks to reduce these points through labor, good behavior, and educ

medical model

mental health approach incorporating fields such as psychology and biology

reintegration model

Looking at external environment for causes of crime and the means to reduce criminality

Crime Control Model

Increasing the use of longer sentences, the death penalty, and intensive supervision probation

Top three in corrections

Texas, California, & Florida