Test 10

Vehicle patrol patterns

1. Circle
2. Random
3. Grid
On patrol don't just stick to major roadways. You need to think like a criminal. Criminals avoid attention.

Foot patrol patterns

1. Park, walk, and talk
2. Random visits in shopping centers merchants
3. House to house surveys of pedestrian traffic control.
Don't get into a routine or establish patterns. Vary your patrol. If an officer falls into a routine criminals will use that information to plan illegal activity.


Enforcement by law-enforcement officers; officers to be uniformed; officers to be paid fixed salaries.
State police officers and law-enforcement officers of every county, city, town, or other political subdivision of the Commonwealth shall enforce the provisions of this title punishable as felonies, misdemeanors, or traffic infractions.


Maximum Speed Limits Generally
Except as otherwise provided in this article, the maximum speed limit shall be 55 miles per hour on interstate highways or other limited access highways with divided roadways, nonlimited access highways having four or more lanes, and all state primary highways.


Any driver, and any other person at least 18 years of age and occupying the front seat, of a motor vehicle equipped or required by the provisions of this title to be equipped with a safety belt system, consisting of lap belts, shoulder harnesses, combinations thereof or similar devices, shall wear the appropriate safety belt system at all times while the motor vehicle is in motion on any public highway.


Any person who drives on the highways of Virginia any motor vehicle manufactured after January 1, 1968, shall ensure that any child, up to age eight, whom he transports therein is provided with and properly secured in a child restraint device


Driving too fast for highway and traffic conditions


Exceeding speed limit


Driver's License Exemptions
A resident over the age of sixteen years and three months who has been duly licensed as a driver under a law of another state or country requiring the licensing of drivers shall, for the first sixty days of his residency in the Commonwealth, be permitted, without a Virginia license, to drive a motor vehicle on the highways of the Commonwealth.


Operation of motor vehicle or self propelled machinery or equipment by habitual offender prohibited; penalty; enforcement of section


Temporary exemption for new resident operating vehicle registered in another state or country

VIN Locations


Hidden location of VIN

One is designated a police VIN and is available upon request from the National Insurance Crime Bureau (NICB)


Operating uninsured motor vehicle without payment of fee; verification of insurance; false evidence of insurance.


Inspection of motor vehicle required

Involuntary Manslaughter

Any person who, as a result of driving under the influence in violation of clause (ii), (iii), or (iv) of � 18.2-266 or any local ordinance substantially similar thereto unintentionally causes the death of another person, shall be guilty of involuntary manslaughter.


Driving motor vehicle while intoxicated
-It shall be unlawful for any person to drive or operate any motor vehicle, engine or train (i) while such person has a blood alcohol concentration of 0.08 percent or more by weight by volume or 0.08 grams or more per 210 liters of breath
-While such person is under the influence of any narcotic drug or any other self-administered intoxicant or drug of whatsoever nature, or any combination of such drugs, to a degree which impairs his ability to drive or operate any motor vehicle

Birchfield v. North Dakota

Refusal of breath: 1st refusal civil offense. Subsequent refusal within 10 years criminal offense-Class 1 misdemeanor.
-Apply for search warrant to obtain blood sample
-Complete documentation for administrative license suspension

Blood testing

-If unable to obtain breath sample and driver agrees, follow these procedures for obtaining a blood sample:
-Take to hospital or lab
-Have blood sample taken by certified medical personnel to include technician or nurse designated by the Circuit Court
-Blood vials to be packaged, handled and submitted in accordance with the Division of Forensic Science Breath Alcohol Rules and Regulations


Administrative Suspension of License
-After having made an arrest for DUI and the Offender either
-Submitted to a breath test with results of .08 or greater
-The subject is under age 21 and submitted to a breath test with results of .02 or greater
-The subject refused to submit to a breath test
and a warrant/summons for any of these violations has been served then the arresting officer shall fill out and serve the arrestee with a Administrative Suspension Notice

Driving suspended DUI related

If breath test administered indicates an alcohol level of .02 or greater on a restricted license charge the person with driving after forfeiture or DUI conviction under 18.2-272

DUI related traffic crashes

If PC exists for a DUI arrest and the driver has been taken to a medical facility for treatment or eval of his medical condition the arresting officer may issue a summons for the violation while on the premises of the medical facility

Guidelines for the transportation of inmates


Preparation of vehicle for transport


Placing in a Sedan equipped with cage


Place inmate in a sedan without a cage (Option One)


Place inmate in a sedan without a cage (Option Two)


Transporting inmates with injury or illness


Observe during transport

Keep notes on inmate during transport such as:
-unusual behavior
-negative statements
-indication of potential danger to themselves or others
Communicate information to anyone who assumes custody of inmate
Increase your attention and awareness when approaching destination

Escorting inmate on foot


Escorting inmate in air

Any officer on airline must complete training established by FAA

Ride alongs


High risk stop

Any stop which poses a significant risk to the officer when dealing with the occupants of vehicle. Situations may fall into this category are known or suspected felons, an armed individual, or any potentially dangerous person

Once vehicle is stopped

Give concise commands-initial officer control stop
-Order all occupants to put their hands on the ceiling and keep them in sight
Repeat for each occupant have them exit one at a time



Signal speed

All radar travels at the speed of light

Speed of light

186,000 miles per second

Wavelength-frequency relationship

Wavelength increases, the frequency will decrease

Vehicle speed (radar)

Determined by changes in signal frequency

Relative motion


How stationary radar works

Stationary radar will transfer one signal, receive and monitor many but only process one for display

Principles of moving radar

Most important thing to remember about this type of radar is that it uses the same radar beam to acquire two different speeds:
-Speed of the target vehicle (in relation to patrol vehicle)
-Speed of the patrol vehicle (in relation to the stationary terrain around it)

How moving radar works

Target Speed = Closing speed - Patrol speed

RADAR decision process


Elements of Speeding Offense


Tracking history


Audio tracking


Operational range control

The range control allows an adjustment to the sensitivity to reflected signals, and can be used to reduce target identification problems



Multibeam cancellation effect


Scanning effect

Hand held RADAR unit that is swung swiftly past the side of a parked car or other stationary object

Panning effect


Patrol speed shadow effect

Only when in moving mode
-Locks onto a large moving vehicle instead of stationary terrain

Batching effect

Only in moving mode
-Time lag on unit for patrol speed when rapidly speeding up or slowing down
-Maintain constant speed

Cosine effect

Measured speed vs true speed
-The difference between the two depends on the angle between the objects motion and the RADAR position
-Greater the angle the lower the measured speed

Wet conditions

Inclement weather will only effect the RADARs range not accuracy

ABC of RADAR Assembly

Box (Counting unit)

Radar testing


State v. Dantonio

Courts extend judicial notice accepting Doppler principle

State v Hanson

The patrol speed was verified by use of calibrated speedometer (=/- 2)
HMS - Hanson - Moving -Speedometer

Commonwealth v Honeycutt

Established qualifications for stationary RADAR
Enough knowledge to be able to set up test and read
HSS - Honeycutt - Stationary - Set up

State v Tomanelli

Courts recognized tuning fork as accurate testing device


Amplification by
Emission of




Commonly invisible to the human eye - LIDAR and Lasers

Light will travel to infinity


Factors affecting LIDAR


Obstruction of laser beam

Dirty windshield

LIDAR tracking history


For court date

Whether testifying for RADAR or LIDAR be prepared to provide:
-Site information
-Device information
-Enforcement information
-Test procedures and information