APUSH Chapter 1

What are the two theories as to how humans came to populate the Americas?

Ancient Asians migrating across the Bering Strait and ancient Asians reaching South America by boat.

What are the ancient people who crossed the Bering Strait known as?

The Clovis people

Summarize the Inca Empire.

A South American mountain tribe who built the largest empire in the Americas using diplomacy as much as force.

Who was the most famous Inca leader?

Pachacuti

Define Meso-American.

Indigenous peoples living in what is now Mexico and Central America.

Name three Meso-American civilizations.

Olmec, Mayans, Aztecs (Mexicans)

Summarize the Mayan civilization.

A group of tribes in Central America and the Yucatan peninsula, named after the Maya region.

What were some advances made by the Mayans?

Written language, calendar, system of numbers, advanced agiculture

Summarize the Aztec Empire.

A collective of tribes who dominated Central America via a tribute system and had a religion demanding human sacrifices.

What was the capital city created by the Aztecs and what was its peak population?

Tenochtitlan, 100,000 people. It was the largest city in the Americas.

What were some of the features of the Aztec capital?

It had public schools, a military, medical systems, and slavery.

What large and widespread event occured in most Native American societies in the last few centuries before European arrival?

An agricultural revolution wherein Native Americans in general became more sedentary; developed new foods, clothing, and shelters, and experienced population growth.

Describe Native American religions.

Nature worship, polytheism, and ancestor worship.

What were Native American beliefs concerning land?

Native Americans believed land belonged to the earth and could not be owned by humans.

What are some changes in Europe that made overseas exploration possible (there are several).

The rise in commerce brought about by a population rebound and rise in land value, a middle class that would eagerly buy new products, the centralization of European nations (with strong tax systems), interest in trade with Asia, the need to find a mariti

What are some of the main reasons that Europeans expanded into unknown parts of the world?

To seek out new riches through new trade networks, to find new resources, to seek gold, to gain increased tax revenue, to spread Christianity.

What nationality was Columbus?

Genoan

Who financially backed Columbus' voyage?

Queen Isabella of Spain

When did Columbus first discover land in America?

1492, 10 weeks after setting out.

How many voyages did Columbus make?

3 voyages: in 1492, in 1493, and in 1498.

What places did Columbus "discover," and what places did he think he had found?

The Bahamas (Japan), Cuba (China), additional Caribbean islands, and South America.

Why was Spain the first European nation to establish an empire in the New World?

It was the leading maritime nation, the number of expeditions they launched, the realization that the New World could be a greater source of wealth than the Far East.

Who was America named after?

An Italian explorer named Amerigo Vespucci.

Who was Herdando Cortez?

A Spaniard who led a military expedition of 600 into Mexico from Cuba. He conquered the Aztecs with the aid of smallpox.

Who was Francisco Pizarro?

A Spaniard who conquered Peru and discovered the Incan's wealth.

Who was Hernando de Soto?

A deputy of Pizarro who searched for gold, exploring deep into North America.

What were the 3 phases of Spanish Empire-building?

1. Discovery and exploration
2. Time of conquistadores
3. Spanish colonization

What caused most of the deaths of Native Americans with the arrival of the Europeans?

Diseases, especially smallpox. The brutal conquistadore policies killed many Native Americans as well.

What crops did the Europeans introduce in America?

Sugar and bananas

What animals did the Europeans introduce in America?

Cattle, pigs, horses

What new crops did the Europeans discover?

Corn, tomatoes, potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, beans

Name some African kingdoms.

Ghana, Mali, Benin, Songhay.

Describe West African beliefs on family.

Greater sex equality, matrilineal family trees and wedding customs, different jobs for men and women, counterpart leaders of both genders.

Describe West African beliefs on religion.

Aside from the presence of Islam in Africa, most religions focused largely on nature and ancestor worship.

Describe West African beliefs on social organizations.

Pyramid hierarchy: small group of priest and nobles at the top, large middle group of people like farmers and traders, slightly smaller bottom group of slaves.

Describe John Cabot.

A Genoan sailor (originally Giovanni Caboto), sailed to northwest North America in 1497 under King Henry VII of England's sponsorship.

Describe chartered companies.

Companies founded by groups of merchants who were given charters by monarchs. The charters gave the companies monopolies over specific regions.

Define Mercantilism.

An economic theory that the nation as a whole, not just the people populating it, is the main player in the economy, so that the goal of economic activity should be to increase the nation's wealth. It states that the world's wealth is finite, so that one

Why did King Henry VIII split from Catholocism and what religion did he create?

The pope refused to grant him a divorce from his wife, he founded Anglicanism (the Church of England) and made himselfhead of the church. He outlawed the practice of all other religions.

What assumptions were made in the British colonization of Ireland?

Natives were complete savages, the only way to deal with savages was to completely suppress them, savages were less than human and thus didn't need to be treated humanely, English settlements had to be as separate as possible from natives.

What sort of relationship did the French coureurs de bois form with the North American Indians and why?

They formed strong, positive, and lasting bonds with native tribes, because the only way they could be successful in the fur trade was by forming solid partnerships with the Native Americans.

Describe Sir Walter Raleigh.

An Englishman involved in the colonization of Ireland who wanted to colonize America. He sent a small expedition who praised the land of Roanoke. He sent two expeditions, but the first abandoned the site and the second disappeared completely.