APUSH Period 6

What period of time was the Gilded Age?

1865-1898

Who used his wealth from a steamboat business to merge RRs into New York Central RR?

Cornelius Vanderbilt (Commodore)

Who was known for selling assets and watering stock?

Jay Gould

What is the term used to describe the inflating value of a corporation's assests and profits before selling stock to the public?

watering stock

When did a financial panic cause 1/4 RRs to go bankrupt?

1893

When did JP Morgan try to take control of and consolidate bankrupt RRs?

Panic of 1839

How many RR companies received subsidies? How many acres of public land was this?

80; 170 mil

List the transcontinental RRs.

Union Pacific, Central Pacific, Southern Pacific, Northern Pacific

What, in regards to RRs, was protested in the 1880s?

land grants

How many time zones are there? When were they created?

4; 1883

When and where were the Granger Laws?

1870s; midwest

What laws tried to regulate RRs? What was the result?

Granger Laws; overturned by courts

ineffective at regulating RRs at first, but expanded during Progressive ear of early 20th century to protect public interest

Interstate Commerce Act of 1886

When was the Bessemer steel process created? Where?

1850s; England

blasting air through molten iron to result in high-quality steel

Bessemer steel process

Who drilled the first U.S. oil? When? Where?

Edwin Drake; 1859; PA

When was Rockefeller's oil company founded?

1863

How did Rockefeller gain control over most oil refineries?

eliminating competition

Who worked from poverty to become the superintendent of a PA RR?

Andrew Carnegie

Who was known for beginning steel manufacturing in the 1870s in Pittsburgh, and beat competitors through salesmanship and technology?

Andrew Carnegie

What was Rockefeller's company called?

Standard Oil Trust

What business practice was used by Andrew Carnegie?

vertical integration

company controls every stage of the industrial process

vertical integration

What was Carnegie's company calle?

U.S. Steel Corporation

Who led the new steel combination that Carnegie sold his company to in 1900?

J.P. Morgan

What was the first billion-dollar company?

U.S. Steel Cormporation

How did Rockefeller drive out competitors?

cut prices for Standard Oil kerosine

former competitors are brought together to work for single corporation

horizontal integration

What business practice did Rockefeller use?

horizontal integration

prohibited "contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce

Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)

What Supreme Court case ruled that the Sherman Anti-Trust Act could be applied to commerce, but not manufacturing?

United States v. E.C. Knight Co. (1895)

policy of letting things take their course, without interfering

Laissez-faire

Who wrote The Wealth of Nations?

Adam Smith

What book said business should be regulated by economic forces of supply and demand, not government, in order to cause self-motivation for high quality and low prices?

Adam Smith

What book is associated with the free market economy?

The Wealth of Nations

Who led Social Darwinism?

Herbert Spencer

Darwin's concepts of natural selection and survival of the fittest should be applied to the marked place

Social Darwinism

Who said that helping the poor is misguided because it interferes with natural laws and weakens our evolution?

William Graham Sumner (Yale)

Who participated in Gospel of Wealth?

Rockefeller, Carnegie

God gave me my riches

Rockefeller

Who was known for civic philanthropy?

Carnegie

Who invented the telegraph?

Samuel F.B. Morse

Who invented the transatlantic cable?

Cyrus W. Field

Who invented the telephone?

Alexander Graham Bell

Who invented the research laboratory? Where?

Thomas Edison; Menlo Park, NJ

Who invented the phonograph?

Thomas Edison

Who invented the incandescent lamp?

Thomas Edison

Who invented the high-voltage alternating current?

George Westinghouse

What was used to light cities, operate electric streetcars, subways, and electrically powered machinery and appliances?

high-voltage alternating current

Where did R.H. Macy build a department store?

NY

Where did Marshall Field build a department store?

Chicago

Name some mail-order companies.

Sears, Roebuck, Montgomery Ward

Name some people who invented packaged foods.

Kellogg, Post, Gustavus Swift

What allowed packaged foods to be shipped?

refrigerated RR cars, canning

closing the factory to break a labor movement before it could get organized

lockout

names of pro-union workers circulated among employers

blacklists

workers being told, as a condition for employment, that they must sign an agreement not to join a union

yellow-dog contracts

For what strike did Rutherford B. Hayes use federal troops?

Great Railroad Strike of 1877

1st attempt to organize workers in all states

National Labor Union

included skilled, unskilled, agricultural, and industrial workers, but lost support after 1873

National Labor Union

What group organized the Great Railroad Strike of 1877?

National Labor Union

What caused the Great RR Strike of 1877?

RR co's cut wages during depression

What fraction of the country's rail trackage was shut down by the Great Railroad Strike of 1877?

2/3

In what strike did Rutherford B. Hayes use fed. troops to end labor violence?

Great Railroad Strike of 1877

What was a secret society formed in 1869?

Knights of Labor

Who led the Knights of Labor?

Terence V. Powderly

Did the Knights of Labor accept women and African Americans?

yes

What did the Knights of Labor do to settle labor disputes?

arbitration, not strikes

What caused membership of the Knights of Labor to decrease?

Haymarket Riot

When and where was the Haymarket Bombing?

1886; Chicago (McCormick Harvester)

What labor movement was happening at the time of the Haymarket Bombing?

May Day (strike for 8 hr work day)

Who led the American Federation of Labor?

Samuel Gompers (until 1924)

What group encouraged skilled workers to walk out until their employers negotiated a new contract with collective bargaining?

American Federation of Labor

What was the nation's largest union in 1901?

American Federation of Labor

What group had no major successes until the early 20th century?

American Federation of Labor

Who was the manager of Carnegie's Homestead Steel Plant near Pittsburgh who cut wages almost 20% in 1892? What event did this cause?

Henry Clay Frick; Homestead Strike

What methods were used to end the Homestead Strike after 5 months?

lockout, private guards, strike breakers

What caused the Pullman Strike?

cut of wages, Pullman fired leaders of workers' delegation who tried to bargain

Who led the American RR Union?

Eugene V. Debs

Who directed RR workers not to work with trains with Pullman cars?

Eugene V. Debs

What president was persuaded to keep mail trains running during the Pullman Strike?

Grover Cleveland

Did Deb and other union leaders obey the Fed. Court injunction ending mail interference and ordering the end of the boycott during the Pullman Strike? What was the result?

no; they were arrested

Did the Supreme Court approve court injunction against strikes in the Pullman Strike?

yes

How much was the miner's tax for foreign-born miners in the 1860s?

$20/month

What act prohibited the immigration of Chinese laborers (until 1965)?

Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

What was the 1st major Congress act restricting immigration on the basis of race and nationality?

Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

What did cattle drives cause?

overgrazing

When did cattle drives end?

1880s

What act gave 160 acres to any family who settled for 5 years?

Homestead Act

How many families took advantage of the Homestead Act?

500000

What were the issues for farmers?

severe weather, scarce water and wood, lonesome life, cost of machinery, lack of land

Who invented barbed wire? When?

Joseph Gliden; 1874

What cut off the open range?

barbed wire

Who argued that the frontier experience was a result of American individualism and independence and was troubled by the closing of the frontier, worried that there would be class division like in Europe?

Turner

What were the Great Plains Native American tribes?

Sioux, Comanche

What were the Southwest Native American tribes?

Navajo, Pueblo

What were the Pacific Northwest Native American tribes?

Chinook, Shasta

What group did U.S. troops fight?

Plains Indians

Who was defeated by the Sioux at the Battle of Little Bighorn?

General Custer

Whose army was wiped out in the Sioux War of 1866?

Capt. William Fetterman

What act: nullified previous treaties with tribes and made it so that tribes were no longer recognized as independent nations?

Indian Appropriation Act of 1871

Name the group: deforestation concerns, scientific management, regulated use of natural resources

conservation

Name the group: photographs to make Yosemite valley a state park, Yellow Stone as first national park in 1872, Forest Reserve Act of 1891, Forest Management Act of 1897

conservation

Name the group: Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz, Presidents Benjamin Harrison and Grover Cleveland

conservation

Name the group: preserve areas from human interference

preservation

Name the group: Arbor Day, Audobon Society, Sierra Club

preservation

Name the group: John Muir-founder of the Sierra Club

preservation

In the South: steel production

Birmingham, AL

In the South: lumber

Memphis, TN

In the South: capital of U.S. tobacco industry

Richmond, VA

In the South: chief U.S. textile producers

GA, NC, SC

What fraction of South RRs were controlled by the North?

3/4

What was the main crop of the South's post-war economy?

cotton

Who was George Washington Carver?

scientist at Tuskegee Institute (AL)

What did George Washington Carver promote?

growing peanuts, sweet potatoes, soybeans

What were Democratic politicians called?

redeemers

Who supported the redeemers?

business community, white supremacists

What was the political tool of power for redeemers?

segregation in public facilities

Supreme Court rules Congress cannot legislate against racial discrimination of private citizens (ex: RRs, hotels, businesses)

Civil Rights Cases of 1883

What was the ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson?

LA law upheld ("separate but equal")

When did Jim Crow laws begin?

1870s

What was not restricted by Jim Crow laws?

streets, most stores

Voters were forced to prove their literacy before voting (African Americans were most affected)

literacy tests

cost used to prevent African Americans from voting

poll taxes

a man could only vote "if his grandfather had cast ballots in elections before Reconstruction

Grandfather Clause

Could African Americans serve on juries in the South?

no

How many were killed by lynchings in the 1890s?

1400+

Who was the editor of Memphis Free Speech who advocated the end of lynching and Jim Crow Laws?

Ida B. Wells

What forced Ida B. Wells to continue work in the North?

death threats, destruction of printing press

Who formed the International Migration Society in 1894 to help African Americans emigrate to Africa?

Bishop Henry Turner

Who founded and lectured at an industrial and agricultural school in Tuskegee, AL?

Booker T. Washington

Who founded the National Negro Business League, teaching racial harmony and economic cooperation?

Booker T. Washington

Name farm problems associated with movements.

competition with larger farms, deflation (competition from foreign countries), high prices for equipment, shipping, storage, high property and land taxes

Name the group: supported "political reforms to solve the farmers' economic problems

Farmer's Southern Alliance

Who organized the National Grange Movement?

Oliver H. Kelley

Name the group: social and educational organization for farmers and families, later became active in politics and economics to defend members against middlemen

National Grange Movement

What did the National Grange Movement use to prevent middlemen?

cooperatives (businesses owned by farmers)

Where did the National Grange Movement lobby for state legislature to pass laws regulating RR and elevator cost?

Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota

What group made it illegal for RR to fix prices by means of pools and give rebates to privileged customers?

National Grange Movement

What group was responsible for Munn v. IL?

National Grange Movement

Supreme Court upheld states' right to regulate business of public nature (including RR)

Munn v. IL

What act attempted to solve problems regulating RRs that crossed state lines by stating that states could only regulate local/short haul rates?

Interstate Commerce Act (1886)

Supreme Court ruled that individual states could not regulate interstate commerce (nullified many Grange advancements)

Wabash v. IL (1886)

Stated RR rates must be "reasonable and just" and set up first federal regulatory agency

Interstate Commerce Act (1886)

What was the first regulatory agency?

Interstate Commerce Commission

could investigate and prosecute pools, rebates, and other discriminatory practices, but helped more RRs than farmers by stabilizing rates and reducing competition; lost most federal court cases in 1890s.

Interstate Commerce Commission

taught scientific farming methods, always had political and economic goals, had potential to create political party, both white and black farmers joined in the South

Farmer's Alliances

What movement did the ideas of Grange and Farmer's Alliances contribute to?

Populist

What group met at the Ocala Platform?

National Alliance of farmers

demanded "direct election of U.S. senators" (previously by state legislatures), lower tariff rates, graduated income tax, "new banking system regulated by the federal government," treasury notes and silver be used to increase amount of money in circulatio

Ocala Platform

What were push factors for immigration?

poverty, overcrowding, lack of jobs, religious persecution

What were pull factors for immigration?

political/religious freedom, economic opportunities in West, industrial jobs in cities, steamships with inexpensive passage in "steerage

When and where were old immigrants from?

1880s; northern and western Europe (British Isles, Germany, Scandinavia)

What were characteristics of old immigrants?

mostly Protestant, some German or Irish Catholics, mostly English-speaking, high literacy, occupational skills

When and where were new immigrants from?

1890s-WWI; southern and eastern Europe (Italians, Greeks, Croats, Slovaks, Poles, Russians)

What were characteristics of new immigrants?

poor, from autocratic countries, Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Jewish

Where did new immigrants settle?

ethnic neighborhoods of New York, Chicago, other large cities

What was the name for the 25% of the new immigrants who were young men contracted to work in factories, mines or construction and would later return to native land with money for family?

birds of passage

What was the prejudice of American Protective Association?

Roman Catholics

saw immigrants as inferior to English and Germanic

Social Darwinists

restricted temporary workers

Contract Labor Law (1885)

shifting population from rural to urban

urbanization

1900: almost ___% Americans lived in cities

40

1920: _________Americans in cities than rural

more

Political parties coming under control of organized groups of politicians.

political machines

top politician of political machine who gave orders and gave government jobs to local supporters

boss

Give an example of a political machine.

Tammany Hall (New York City)

How did political machines often begin?

social clubs

What were positives of political machines?

coordinate needs of businesses, underprivileged immigrants in return for votes, brought modern services to city (including crude forms of welfare), find jobs and apartments for new immigrants, bring poor families baskets of food

What were negative aspects of political machines?

stole millions from tax payers (graft and fraud); NYC 1860s: 65% public building funds went to Boss Tweed and cohorts; greed

Young educated people from middle-class settled into immigrant neighborhoods, wanting to provide social services to reduce effect of poverty

settlement houses

Who was known for her work at the Hull House settlement house?

Jane Addams

What were the effects of settlement houses?

learn about how the poor live, taught immigrants English, taught early childhood ed. and industrial arts, started neighborhood theaters and music schools, child labor laws, housing reform, women's rights

What was the foundation for the later job of social worker?

settlement houses

1880s and 90s: Protestant clergy wanted to help urban poor

Social Gospel

applying Christian principles to social problems

Social Gospel

Baptist minister from NY, leader of Social Gospel in late 19th and early 20th centuries, worked in NYC neighborhood Hell's Kitchen

Walter Rauschenbusch

Why did divorce rates increase to 1/12 in 1900?

state legislature expanded grounds to cruelty and desertion

True or false? Birth rates and average family size reduced with rise of urban society.

True

When was Seneca Falls?

1848

Who helped found the National Women Suffrage Association in 1890?

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony

What was the first state to grant full suffrage to women in 1869?

Wyoming

By ___________: some states allowed women's votes in local elections and most allowed women to own and control property after marriage.

1900

When was the Woman's Christian Temperance Union founded? Who led it?

1874; Frances E. Willard

When was the Antisaloon League founded?

1893

By 1916, _________________________ convinced 21 states to close bars and saloons.

Antisaloon League

Who raided saloons and smashed beer barrels with a hatchet?

Carry A. Nation

How much did the literacy rate rise with the requirement for children to attend schools in 1900?

90%

There was increasing support for ________ high schools.

public

Social scientist who used statistical methods to study crime in urban neighborhoods, 1st African American to receive Harvard doctorate, advocated for equality for blacks, school integration, equal access to higher education for "talented tenth" of African

W.E.B. DuBois

lawyer, argued criminal behavior could be caused by poverty, neglect, and abuse

Clarence Darrow

What author was known for realism?

Mark Twain (Adventures of Huckleberry Finn revealed greed, violence, and racism of America)

When did naturalism emerge?

1890s

Who were famous naturalist authors?

Stephen Crane, Jack London, Theodore Dreiser

What did Stephen Crane write?

Maggie: A Girl of the Streets, Red Badge of Courage

What did Jack London write?

Call of the Wild (conflict between nature and civilization)

What did Theodore Dreiser write?

Sister Carrie (poor working girl in Chicago)

Who was known for matter-of-fact watercolors and seascapes?

Winslow Homer

Who was the worker for Sullivan who developed "organic" style of architecture?

Frank Lloyd Wright

Who was known for his marches played in outdoor bandstands?

John Philip Sousa

Who were famous New Orleans jazz artists?

Jelly Roll Morton, Buddy Bolden

What does jazz consist of?

African rhythm, European instruments

Who was the black composer and performer responsible for "Maple Leaf Rag?

Scott Joplin

What were the blues based on?

African American pain

What were the popular music styles in the early 20th century?

jazz, ragtime, blues

Who published the first newspaper to exceed 1 mil in circulation, covering crimes, disasters, and political and economic corruption? What was this paper called?

Joseph Pulitzer; New York World

New York publisher who wrote about scandal and used sensationalism

William Randolph Hearst

When did pro sports begin?

19th century

Who became a national hero as a boxer?

John L. Sullivan

Who organized baseball teams?

owners

Who began the tradition of the president throwing the first ball of the season?

Taft

What colleges had football teams?

Rutgers, Princeton

When were there pro football teams?

1920s

What were popular amateur sports for women?

croquet, bicycling

What sports had athletic clubs?

golf, tennis

What groups did athletic clubs discriminate against?

Jews, Catholics, African Americans

What were popular sports for the rich?

polo, yachting

Who coined the term "Gilded Age?

Mark Twain

What is the term for winning elections and giving government jobs to faithful supporters?

party patronage

NY Senator who dictated Republican ranks, known as Stalwarts

Roscoe Conkling

What were those who opposed party patronage called? Who led this group?

halfbreeds; James G. Blaine

What were Republicans who didn't use party patronage called?

mugwumps

Were republicans for against tariffs? Democrats?

for; against

Were republicans for or against temperance? Democrats?

for; against

What groups supported republicans?

wealthy, white protestants

What groups supported democrats?

working class, immigrants

Did the republicans favor state or federal government?

federal

Did the democrats favor state or federal government?

state

When was Rutherford B. Hayes elected?

1876

What was Rutherford B. Hayes' party?

republican

What major event did the election of Rutherford B. Hayes mark?

end of Reconstruction

What president cut off liquor in the White House?

Rutherford B. Hayes

What did Hayes veto?

Chinese immigration restriction

When was James Garfield elected?

1880

What was Garfield's party?

republican

When was Garfield shot? By a person from what group?

1881; stalwart

Who became president after Garfield was assassinated?

Chester Arthur

Was Chester Arthur renominated in 1884? Did he win?

yes; no

What did Arthur do after Garfield was killed?

distanced from stalwarts

What did Arthur support reform of?

civil service

What president approved the navy's development?

Chester Arthur

Who won the election of 1884?

Grover Cleveland

What was Cleveland's party?

democrat

What president was responsible for the Interstate Commerce Act of 1877?

Cleveland

Gave the federal government the power to regulate the RR industry by breaking up RR monopolies and ending discriminatory practices between passengers and shippers

Interstate Commerce Act of 1877

What president is responsible for the Dawes Act?

Cleveland

forced assimilation of American Indians by breaking up tribes, moving them to reservations, and instituting mandatory boarding school for children

Dawes Act

What president is responsible for the Pendleton Act?

Cleveland

set up Civil Service Commission, applicants for classified federal jobs would be selected based on competitive examination scores, civil servants could not make political contributions

Pendleton Act

person working on behalf of or withing a government agency, including both elected and non-elected persons

civil servant

Was the Gold Standard preferred by the rich or the poor?

rich (limited amount meant existing gold had greater value)

What form of money was preferred by the poor?

bimetallism

What are today's U.S. dollars considered?

fiat money

What groups did not support the U.S. expanding its money supply?

bankers, creditors, investors, established businesses

Money backed by ____________ would hold value against inflation and would increase in value.

gold

What groups supported the U.S. expanding its money supply?

debtors, farmers, start-up businesses

What would expanding the money supply allow?

borrowing money at lower interest rats, pay off loans easily with inflated dollars

a tax on imported goods that control demand for foreign goods by making them more expensive

tariffs

What were pros of raised tariffs?

US gov revenue, encouraged buying US products

What were cons of raised tariffs?

other countries raised theirs in retaliation, farmers couldn't sell goods overseas

Who were the candidates in the election of 1888?

Cleveland, Harrison

What was Harrison's political party?

republican

Did Cleveland want higher or lower tariffs?

lower

Did Harrison want higher or lower tariffs?

higher

What groups supported Cleveland in 1888?

farmers, South

What groups supported Harrison in 1888?

big businesses, war veterans, factory workers, North

Who won the popular vote in 1888?

Cleveland

Who won the electoral collect in 1888?

Harrison

Who won the election of 1888?

Harrison

raise tax on foreign products to peacetime high (48%+)

McKinley Tariff (1890)

outlawed "combinations in restraint of trade

Sherman Antitrust Act

increased coinage of silver, but not enough to satisfy farmers and miners

Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)

laws require businesses to close on Sundays, caused non-Anglo-Saxons and non-Protestants to return to democrats

prohibition laws

What group primarily made up the populists?

farmers

formed because of concentration of economic power in hands of trusts and bankers

populists

What party was responsible for the Omaha Platform?

populists

stated that there must be an increase in common voters' powers (direct popular election of U.S. Senators, allowing citizens to vote more directly on proposed laws)

Omaha Platform

Who was the first presidential candidate of the populists?

James Weaver

Who did James Weaver lose to in the presidential election?

Harrison, Cleveland

In the spring/summer, the stock market crashed because of overspeculation. Dozens of RRs went bankrupt because of overbuilding. 4 year depression. Farm foreclosures reached a new high. Poor went to soup kitchens or became "hoboes riding rails.

Panic of 1893

What form of currency did Grover Cleveland support?

gold standard

Did Grover Cleveland do anything to benefit the economy during he Panic of 1893?

no

What did populists support in the way of currency?

unlimited coinage of silver

What did populists support in the way of tariffs?

graduated income tax

What reduced tariffs on certain imports? What group supported this?

Wilson Gorman Tariff; populists

What group supported "public ownership of railroads by the U.S. government?

populists

Congress can levy income tax

16th amendment

What did populists support for industrial workers?

8 hr work day

1894 pamphlet advocating bimetalism

Coin's Financial School

Who wrote Coin's Financial School?

William Hope Harvey

Who was known for his Cross of Gold speech?

William Jennings Bryan

What was William Jennings Bryan's party?

democrat

Who were the candidates in the election of 1896?

William McKinley, William Jennings Bryan

What did William Jennings Bryan support?

low tariffs, bimetallism

What groups supported William Jennings Bryan?

populists, farmers

How did William Jennings Bryan campaign?

traveled across country by train

What was William McKinley's party?

republican

What did McKinley support?

high tariffs, gold standard

What groups supported McKinley?

bankers, business leaders

Who was responsible for McKinley's campaign?

Mark Hanna

How did McKinley campaign?

front-porch" (from home, sold to mass media)

Who won the election of 1896?

William McKinley

What president is responsible for the Dingley Tariff? What did this do?

McKinley; increased tariff to over 46%

What president made gold the official standard for U.S. currency?

McKinley

What was the significance of the election of 1896?

end of Gilded Age, beginning of era of republicans, populist decline, urban dominance, first modern president

What was the long-lasting effect of the populists?

graduated income tax, popular eletion of senators

What was the long-lasting result of McKinley's presidency?

U.S. became major player in international affairs

What are rebates?

discounts (offered to shippers by RRs)

the same directors ran competing companies

interlocking dictorates

Who used interlocking dictorates?

Morgan

Who invented the Kodak camera?

George Eastman

Who wrote A Century of Dishonor which described the abuse of American Indians?

Helen Hunt Jackson

Who was the American RR Union's leader?

Eugene V. Debs