AP US History Chapter 8: Nationalism and Economic Development

Era of Good Feelings

Monroe years, marked by nationalism, optimism, goodwill, Republican party dominance in all areas, although there were many conflicts

Sectionalism

loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole

James Monroe

fought in Revolution, Valley Forge winter, Jefferson's minister to Britain, Madison's secretary of state

Election of 1816

Monroe defeated Rufus King 183 to 34, Federalist Party ceased to exist

Cultural Nationalism

young nation was excited about the prospects of moving westward, had little interest in European wars, patriotic themes in paintings, schoolbooks, Stuart, Peale, Trumball, Noah Webster's patriotic speller

Economic Nationalism

movement to support the growth of the nation's economy, internal improvements was a big aspect

Tariff of 1816

Congress raised tariff rates on certain goods for express purpose of protecting US manufacturers, Americans feared British would dump their goods, first protective tariff in US history

Protective Tariff

a tariff imposed to protect domestic firms from import competition

American System

Henry Clay, method for advancing economic growth, protective tariffs, national bank, internal improvements, tariffs would promote American manufacturing, bank would keep system running smoothly, internal improvements would help west and south, Congress ch

Panic of 1819

first major financial panic, fault of Second Bank, which had tightened credit, deflation, large increases in unemployment, most severe in west, huge debt and foreclosure, nationalistic views shaken

Political Changes

Federalist party couldn't adopt to changes, couldn't handle war of 1812, inability to handle nationalist policies crushed them as a national party

Second Bank of the United States

This institution was chartered in 1816 under President Madison and became a depository for federal funds and a creditor for (loaning money to) state banks. It became unpopular after being blamed for the panic of 1819, and suspicion of corruption and misma

Changes to Republican Party

John Randolph clung to old ideals of party, majority adopted Federalist program, authorized large army and navy, chartered new bank, political factions and sectionalism grew

Daniel Webster

Massachusetts, strongly opposed tariffs but reversed to support higher tariffs in 1828

John C. Calhoun

had been a war hawk, became a champion of states' rights later

Fletcher v. Peck 1810

Marshall concluded a state could not pass legislation invalidating a contract, first time US declared state law to be unconstitutional

Martin v. Hunter's Lease 1816

Supreme Court established principle that it had jurisdiction over state courts in cases involving constitutional rights

Dartmouth College v. Woodward 1819

court struck down the state law, arguing that a contract for a private corporation could not be altered by the state

McCulloch v. Maryland 1819

Marshall ruled federal government had the implied power to create the bank, the state could not tax a federal institution because "the power to tax is the power to destroy

Cohens v. Virginia 1821

established principle that the Supreme Court could review a state court's decision involving any of the powers of the federal government

Gibbons v. Ogden 1821

Marshall established the federal government's broad control of interstate commerce

Acquisition of Native American Lands

large areas of land were open after Native Americans had been driven back by Harrison and Jackson victories

Economic Pressures

problems resulting from embargo and war pushed people from the North to the west for new opportunity, South needed new land to replace exhausted tobacco soil

Improved Transportation

building of roads and canals, steamboats and railroads helped families move to the west

Immigrants

more Europeans were being moved by speculators offering cheap land in the west

Early Slavery Debate

when Vermont entered as free and Kentucky as slave, politicians had balanced, Population grew rapidly in North, balance in House off, Missouri statehood threatened the balance

Tallmadge Amendment

prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri, required the children of Missouri slaves to be emancipated at age 25, would had led to gradual elimination of slavery, was defeated

Missouri Compromise 1820

Missouri was slave state, Maine was a free state, 36 30 line could prohibit slavery north

Aftermath of Missouri Compromise

36 30 line held issue in check for 30 years, sectionalism began to hurt America

Foreign Affairs

after 1812, America adopted more aggressive policies, policies with the Barbary Pirates, etc.

Stephen Decatur

sent by Adams and Monroe to North Africa to force rulers to allow American shipping free use of the Mediterranean

Rush-Bagot Agreement 1817

major disarmament pact, strictly limited naval armament on the Great Lakes, extended limits on border fortification, US and Canada border was longest unfortified border in the world

Treaty of 1818

increased relations with Britain, shared fishing rights off Newfoundland, joint occupation of Oregon territory, setting of Northern limit of Louisiana at 49th parallel

Florida

War of 1812, US troops had occupied here, Spain held it previously, had difficulty governing the peninsula, Seminoles, runaway slaves, and white outlaws began conducting raids on US, Monroe and Jackson took action

Jackson's Florida Campaign

1817 Monroe commissioned Jackson to stop raids, led force into Florida, destroyed Seminole villages, hanged chiefs, drove out governor, hanged British traders, went beyond instructions, some feared he may cause war, Adams supported

Adams Onis Treaty819

Florida Purchase Treaty, Spanish government would return Florida and Oregon to US for $5 million and return of claims in Texas

Beginnings of Monroe Doctrine

US could not ignore European intervention in Western hemisphere, monarchies grew in Europe, posed growing threat to US

British Initiative

British navy helped deter Spanish from Latin American involvement, wanted to main trade with Latin American republics

George Canning

British Foreign Secretary, wanted to maintain British trade with Latin American republics

American Response

Adams believed joint action would restrict US opportunity, if US acted alone, Britain could be counted on to stand behind US, no European power would risk going to war in South America

Monroe Doctrine

December 2 1823 American continents are free and independent as they are maintained, not to be considered as subjects of colonization by European powers, US was opposed to European interference in Western hemisphere

Impact of Monroe Doctrine

words were applauded by American people, British were annoyed because it applied to them, Europeans realized words were back up by British navy, cornerstone of US foreign policy

National Economy

early 1800s Jeffersonian dream of independent farmers remained in rural areas, increasing percentage of people were swept up by Industrial Revolution, conflicts over tariffs, internal improvements, and bank reflected effect of national economy

Population Growth

between 1800 and 1825 US population nearly doubled, next 25 years doubled again, British and German immigrants, nonwhite population grew despite restrictions on importation of slaves, almost 1/3 lived west of Alleghenies by 1830s

Transportation

efficient network of roads and canals were necessary for moving people in the economy

Lancaster Turnpike

built in the 1790s, connected Philadelphia with rich farmlands, success stimulated construction of other privately built short toll roads

National/Cumberland Road

paved highway, major route to the west extending from Maryland to Illinois, begun in 1811, finished in 1850s, received federal and sate money

Roads

most were short toll roads, construction of highways that crossed state lines were unusual, usually blocked by Congress

Erie Canal

1825 major event in linking economies of western farms and eastern cities, successes touched off a frenzy of canal building, improved transportation lowered food prices, stronger economic ties between east and west

Steamboats

age of mechanized travel in 1807, began with voyage of Clermont, soon huge numbers linked the nation

Clermont

steamboat developed by Robert Fulton, voyaged up the Hudson River in 1807

Railroads

more rapid and reliable links between cities, early attempts hampered by safety problems, 1830s competing directly with canals as alternative method for carrying passengers and freight

Growth of Industry

by mid 19th century, American manufacturing surpassed US agriculture, world's leader, came in response to number of factors

Mechanical Inventions

patent laws helped inventors reap rewards for their ingenuity, big reason for growth of industry

Eli Whitney

developed the cotton gin in 1793, also developed interchangeable parts for basis of mass production methods

Corporations

1811 New York passed law making it easier for businesses to incorporate and raise capital, owners risked only small amount of money, facilitated raising large sums of capital

Samuel Slater

took British secrets for cotton-spinning machines from Britain to America, built first US factory in 1791

Factory System

1820s New England emerged as the country's leading manufacturing center due to waterpower, decline of New England's maritime industry made capital available, other states followed example, led to growth of financial businesses

Labor

finding workers for factories was a large system, used women for the work in textile factories, also used child labor, immigrants weren't employed until later

Lowell System

recruiting young farm women, housing them in company dormitories, women worked in textile factories

Unions

major cities organized trade/craft, increased in numbers, skilled workers sought employment in factories because their practice of working in shops couldn't compete, long hours, low pay, poor working conditions, goal was to reduce to ten hour workday, obs

Commercial Agriculture

change to cash crops as the result of cheap land in the west and the easy credit given by state banks, new markets were opened by roads and canals, etc.

Cotton and the South

Cotton gin transformed the area, cotton was planted more profitably than tobacco and indigo, invested in capital wit slaves, oversea British textile factories

Effects of Market Revolution

all factors led to a revolution in market, farmers fed the workers in the cities, who produced goods, standard of living increased, impersonal, fast-changing economy presented challenges and problems

Women

women no longer worked next to their husbands or on the family farm, moved to the cities, worked mainly in domestic service or teaching, factory jobs were uncommon, single women worked, women were gaining power, fewer children and arranged marriages, lega

Economic and Social Mobility

real wages improved, income disparity widened, social mobility occurred, economic opportunities were more prevalent here than in Europe

Social Mobility

moving upward in income level and social status

Slavery

many people felt slavery would gradually disappear, however, it was unfeasible due to exhausted soil of coastal lands and the constitutional ban on importation of slaves, hopes for end of slavery were ended by growth of cotton industry