APUSH Final Review

14th Amendment

All persons born or naturalized in the US are citizens of the US and of the state where they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of US citizens. No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty

16th Amendment

Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes

18th Amendment

Alcohol is abolished

54�40' or Fight

In the election of 1844, Polk used this statement as a campaign slogan, implying that he would declare war if Britain did not give the United States al the Oregon territory up to its northern boundary, the line in the slogan. Negotiation occurred, and the


Common shorthand for the terrorist attacks that occurred in 2001, in which 19 militant Islamist men hijacked and crashed four commercial aircraft. Two planes hit the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, causing them to collapse. One pla

Alien & Sedition Acts

Purpose: federalists/John Adams wanted to silence their/his opponents (Democratic-Republicans led by Jefferson). Alien Act made it more difficult for foreigners to become US citizens (5 year to 14 year waiting requirement). Sedition Act made it illegal to

Arms race

The nuclear one during the Cold War was a period of high tension between the Soviet Union and the United States. Neither country wanted to implement their nuclear arsenals; the goal was only to have more nuclear weapons than the opponent. In an arms race,

Big Stick Diplomacy

Diplomatic policy developed by Roosevelt where the "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign polic

Bill of Rights

Which consists of the first ten Constitutional Amendments, guarantees certain rights to American citizens in all circumstances. This bill was put forth by Anti-Federalists, who feared forms of government intrusion on personal liberties.

Bonus Army

A group of almost 20,000 World War I veterans who were hard-hit victims of the depression, who wanted what the government owed them for their services and "saving" democracy. They marched to Washington and set up public camps and erected shacks on vacant

Booker T. Washington

A former slave. Encouraged blacks to keep to themselves and focus on the daily tasks of survival, rather than leading a grand uprising. Believed that building a strong economic base was more critical at that time than planning an uprising or fighting for

Brown v. Board of Education

the 1954 Supreme Court decision holding that school segregation in topeka, kansas, was inherently unconstitutional because it violated the 14th Amendment's guarantee of equal protection. this case marked the end of legal segregation in the us.

Chesapeake/Leopard Incident

1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britai

Compromise of 1850

North: California admitted as a free state, Texas gave up its claims to lands disputed with New Mexico, Slave trade in D.C. was banned, but slavery was legal. South: Popular sovereignty in Mexican Cession lands, Texas was paid $10 million for land lost, A

Congressional Reconstruction Plan

(1865-1877) Period after the Civil War during which Northern political leaders created plans for the governance of the South and a procedure for former Southern states to rejoin the Union; Southern resentment of this era lasted well into the twentieth cen

Contract with America

In the 1994 congressional elections, Congressman Newt Gingrich had Republican candidates sign a document in which they pledged their support for such things as a balanced budget amendment, term limits for members of Congress, and a middle-class tax cut.

Cotton gin

Eli Whitney inventor of it (1793) in Georgia. the cotton gin separated the seed from the fiber. and the first to use the system of interchangeable parts. It fastened slavery to the south. It helped industrialism which helped end slavery by starting the ci

Cuban Missile Crisis

Was an incident where Soviet missiles were placed in Cuba as a response for help. The event greatly increased tensions between the Soviets and the Americans. As a result, a hotline was established between the two nations to avoid any accidents.

D Day

June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

de las Casas

A Spanish missionary who was disgusted and outraged by the poor treatment of Native Americans especially the encomienda system. Significance: Advocated for the rights of Native America s to King Charles of Spain, sometimes known as the father of anti-impe

Destruction of the buffalo

The buffalo were very important to the Native economies. They provided them with food, clothing, shelter, fuel, knives, arrow heads, and bow strings. Much of their life was based upon the buffalo. White relentlessly killed buffalo herds to supply food and

Dred Scott case

Supreme Court decision that stated three things: Blacks were not citizens and therefore could not sue in federal courts; Because a slave is their master's property, they can be taken into any territory and held there in slavery; Congress had no power to b

End of Reconstruction

Compromise of 1877-The compromise that ended the era of Reconstruction. It stated that Hayes would be president over Tilden on the condition that he would build a southern transcontinental railroad and remove federal support for the Republicans in the Sou

Espionage & Sedition Acts

Espionage Act (1917)- Law which punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing military duty during World War 1. Sedition Act (1918)- Added to Espionage Act, this act deemed "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the American form of

Federalists vs Anti Federalists

supported the constitution- Known as Federalists, they were mostly wealthy and opposed anarchy. Their leaders included Jay, Hamilton, and Madison, who wrote the Federalist Papers in support of the Constitution. Opponents of the constitution- Known as Anti

Fireside Chats

The informal radio talks President Franklin Delano Roosevelt had with Americans during the Great Depression. They not only unified America with these nationwide speeches, but he roses American spirits by encouraging Americans through the Great Depression.


carefree young women with short, "bobbed" hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts. The flapper symbolized the new "liberated" woman of the 1920s. Many people saw the bold, boyish look and shocking behavior of flappers as a sign of changing morals. Though har

Gospel of Wealth

Essay written by Andrew Carnegie. Promoted Social Darwinism, Wealth among the few was the natural and most efficient result of capitalism, Great wealth brought responsibility

Great Migration

The movement of African Americans from the South to the industrial centers of the Northeast and the Midwest. Causes for migration included decreasing cotton prices, the lack of immigrant workers in the North, increased manufacturing as a result of the war

Great Society

President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education. It meant to solve large social probl

Growth of labor unions

1800-Workers begin to organize into labor unions for goal of receiving a 10-hour workday. 1830- Brought about by the growth of the factory system, the desire for benefits, and an influx of immigrants willing to work

Gulf of Tonkin Resolutions

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon

GW Farewell Address

stressed maintaining commercial but not political ties to other nations; stressed not entering permanent alliances; America's uniqueness depended on being independent action on foreign affairs

Hamilton's Plan

It was created by Alexander Hamilton to stabilize the American economy. It consisted of federal assumption of all debts, including state and federal debts. Along with this, he proposed the chartering of the U.S. bank to help restore American credit.

Harlem Renaissance

a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s when New York City's Harlem became an intellectual and cultural capital for African Americans; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.

Henry Clay

Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser.

Homestead Act of 1862

Act that allowed a settler to acquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years, improving it, and paying a nominal fee of about $30 - instead of public land being sold primarily for revenue, it was now being given away to encourage a rapid

Horizontal Integration

A technique used by John D. Rockefeller. Horizontal integration is an act of joining or consolidating with one's competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the

Hull House

house where immigrants came to live upon entering the U.S. At Settlement Houses, instruction was given in English and how to get a job, among other things. The first Settlement House was the Hull House, which was opened by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889.

ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission)

the first federal regulatory board, supervised railroad regulation

FTC (Federal Trade Commission)

Established in 1914 to enforce existing antitrust laws that prohibited business combinations in restraint of trade.

FDA (Food and Drug Administration)

Pure food and drug act established it which tested and approved drug before they went on the market

Indian Removal

Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant� and often forcible�emigration of tens of thousands

Iran Contra Scandal

scandal that erupted during the Reagan administration when it was revealed that US government agents had secretly sold arms to Iran in order to raise money to fund anti- communist "Contra" forces in Nicaragua. Those acts directly contravened an ongoing US

Iron Curtain

The Iron Curtain symbolized the ideological fighting and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas in the post-WWII and Cold War era. The boundary lay vertically through the middle of Germany. On the west side was the Soviet Union, Poland,

Korematsu v US

Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship

Laissez faire

In economics, this means allowing industry to be free of state intervention, especially restrictions in the form of tariffs and government monopolies.

League of Nations

In 1919, after the war, Wilson proposed it in the 14th point of his peace plan. He envisioned it as an Assembly with seats for all nations and a special council for the great powers. The US voted not to join the League because in doing so, it would have t

Lend Lease Act

On 11th March 1941, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act. The legislation gave President Franklin D. Roosevelt the powers to sell, transfer, exchange, lend equipment to any country to help it defend itself against the Axis powers. A sum of $50 billion was a

Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan

Former Confederate states would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery. Not put into effect because Lincoln was assassinated.

Loose vs Strict Constructionism

strict:Constitution states that the government of the United States holds only those powers specifically granted to it by the Constitution; loose: interpretation of the Constitution posits that the government of the United States hold all powers that are

Manhattan Project

The Manhattan project was a secret research and development project of the U.S to develop the atomic bomb. Its success granted the U.S the bombs that ended the war with Japan as well as ushering the country into the atomic era.

Manifest Destiny

This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.

Marbury v. Madison

The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (th

Marshall Court

vested rights in contract clauses; expanded Court's jurisdiction; judicial nationalism; blocking state regulations that limited property rights; freeing American commerce from restraints

Missouri Compromise

1820, The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states and free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave


When a business owns all of their competition and their business because they were able to buy out the competitors. Used by Rockefeller to control the oil business. Companies are allowed to set prices at whatever they want and the consumer only has that o

Monroe Doctrine

A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.

Moral Majority

Political action committee founded by evangelical Reverend Jerry Falwell in 1979 to promote traditional Christian values and oppose feminism, abortion, and gay rights. The group was a major linchpin in the resurgent religious right of the 1980s.

My Lai Massacre

Military assault in a small Vietnamese village on March 16, 1968, in which American soldiers under the command of 2nd Lieutenant William Calley murdered hundreds of unarmed Vietnamese civilians, mostly women and children. The atrocity produced outrage and


North American Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Trade agreement that included Mexico, Canada, and the United States. It was a symbol of the increased reality of a globalized marketplace.

Navigation Acts of 1650

1654- Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.

Neutrality Acts 1936 & 1937

prohibited sale of arms to belligerents in a war; banned loans to belligerents; citizens cannot travel to countries at war or travel on armed ships; passed to prevent American involvement in future overseas wars

New Deal

President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insurance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and

New vs Old Immigrants

Old: Northern European (English, Germans, Irish Catholics), assimilated easier, high skill level, often spoke English;; New: South/Eastern, wouldn't assimilate, close- knit community, uneducated, poor, unskilled laborers


agreement to not import certain goods. Nonimportation agreements were formed in response to the strengthening grip of Britain on the colonies.

Nullification Crisis

(1832-1833) showdown between President Andrew Jackson and the South Carolina legislature, which declared the 1832 tariff null and void in the state and threatened secession if the federal government tried to collect duties. It was resolved by a compromise

Open Door Policy

Statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China. Issued by U.S. Secretary of State John Hay (1899), the statement reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade.


a system in which benefits, including jobs, money, or protection are granted in exchange for political support. (not a good system of government- this was something that was fought by the English Whigs)

Pearl Harbor

The US thought the Japanese would attack British Malaya or the Philippines. But instead they attacked here, at several naval bases wiping out many ships and killing 3000 men. The next day the US declares war on Japan. The Day after that the Germans and It

Persian Gulf War

Saddam Hussain of Iraq invaded Kuwait and threatened Saudi Arabia. By taking over these regions, Hussain would have been able to control much of the world's oil. He was stopped by the intervention of America in Operation Desert Storm. In 1991, Bush issued

Platt Amendment

This was a 1901 amendment to a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress that replaced the earlier Teller amendment. It defined the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops from Cuba at the end of the Spanish-American war. The amendment insured U

Plessy v. Ferguson

U.S. Supreme Court decision supporting the legality of Jim Crow laws that permitted or required separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites.

Popular sovereignty

notion that the sovereign people of a given territory should decide whether to allow slavery. Seemingly a compromise, it was largely opposed by Northern abolitionists who feared it would promote the spread of slavery to the territories.

Presidential Reconstruction Plan

The Reconstruction plans of Lincoln and Johnson who believed it was the executive's power to rebuild the South. It was the first "round" of the Reconstruction, from 1863 to the spring of 1866.

Progressive Movement

A movement, or groups of different reform movements, that took place at the turn of the 20th century until WWI directly caused by industrialization and urbanization. This movement sought to improve life in the industrial age by making moderate political c


The Pilgrims were separatists who believed that the Church of England could not be reformed. Separatist groups were illegal in England, so the Pilgrims fled to America and settled in Plymouth. The Puritans were non-separatists who wished to adopt reforms

Emergency Quota Acts of 1921

In response to the many immigrants coming into America from Europe. Congress passed it in which newcomers from Europe were restricted at any year to a quota, which was set at 3% of people of their nationality who lived in the U.S. in 1910. Was replaced be


The federal economic policies of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate e

Republican Motherhood

An idea linked to republicanism that elevated the role of women. It gave them the prestigious role as the special keepers of the nation's conscience Its roots were from the idea that a citizen should be to his country as a mother is to her child.

Sacco & Vanzetti

Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the cr

Social Darwinism

Social Darwinism, advocated by much of the upper class in the post Civil War era, is a theory comparing the studies of Charles Darwin to the social and economic class of humans. Essentially, it was a belief that encompasses the idea that those that were r


The southern and southwestern states, from the Carolinas to California, characterized by warm climate and recently, rapid population growth

Teddy Roosevelt

This man was 42 in September 1901, when William McKinley was assassinated. He took over the presidency and became the youngest man ever to assume the presidency. Never openly rebelled against the leaders of his party. Became a champion of cautious, modera

Tet Offensive

The name given to a campaign in January 1968 by the Viet Cong to attack twenty-seven South Vietnamese cities, including Saigon. It ended in a military defeat for the Viet Cong, but at the same time, proved that Johnson's "gradual escalation" strategy was

The Jungle

Upton Sinclair's novel that inspired pro-consumer federal laws regulating meat, food, and drugs. Meat Inspection Act: Required strict cleanliness requirements for meat packers and created a program of federal meat inspection. It came about in 1906 as a re


was an intellectual movement rooted in the religious soil of New England. Transcendentalists turned to the romantics in Europe for inspiration. Many Transcendentalists believed in the importance of nature and degraded materialism. Transcendentalism greatl

Treaty of Versailles

was created to solve problems made by World War I. Germany was forced to accept the treaty. It was composed of only four of the original points made by President Woodrow Wilson. The treaty punished Germany and did nothing to stop the threat of future wars

VA & KY Resolves

The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799, in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The Resolutions argued that the sta

Vertical integration

A single company owns and controls the entire process from raw materials to the manufacture and sale of the finished product

Virginia Plan

a plan by James Madison, for a new "national" government, its controversial ideas causing much debate at the convention. It called for a legislature of two houses; the lower house would be represented in proportion of population, and the upper house was e

Voting Rights Act of 1965

invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it brought jobs, contract

War bonds

Short-term loans that individual citizens made to the government that financed two-thirds of the war's cost.

Warren Court

Court created when Eisenhower appointed the previously conservative Earl Warren as chief justice over William J. Brennan Jr. The court became a vehicle for social change and advocate for individual rights.

Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, pu

XYZ Affair

1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, France began to break off relatio

Yellow journalism

journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers; popularized in the late nineteenth century by Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst