HIST 1483 Exam 1

Inter Caetera

Pope Alexander VI issued a papal bull May 4, 1493 that granted sovereignty to Spain and Portugal and determined indigenous peoples had souls and needed to be converted. Origin of the active colonization of native peoples. Bring natives of Portugal and Spa


In 1519, Spanish church and crown declared that this document had to be read whenever they encountered Indians. Document told the Indians that they would not be harmed if they acknowledged the Church and the Spanish crown. Was in Spanish so none of them u

Black Legend

Message spread through out Europe with Casas's writing. Gave the image of Spanish brutally conquering the "New World" and mistreatment of natives. England used this as as justification of English coming to "save" natives, but really wanted to challenge Sp


Caused by the desire of land-owning lords in ENGLAND to raise sheep for wool trade, lowering the needed workforce and unemploying thousands of poor former-farmers; the lords fenced off the their great quantities of land from the mid to late 1500's forcing


First settlement of English in NC. Secret from Spain, and intended to raid Spanish shipments. Second group at Roanoke (mainly families). Supply ship came from England and found that the 100 colonists went missing in 1590. "CROATOAN" written in tree, the l

House of Burgesses

the first elected LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619. Set up by England to make LAWS and levy TAXES. ONLY landowners could vote but England could veto its legistlative acts.This will be the political struct

Doctrine of Depravity

part of puritanism, we are all evil in nature and needed "unearned grace of God

Great Migration

5 ships set sale from England in 1629. English settlers arrive in Ireland, the Chesapeake, Carribean, and Massachusetts. 21,000 puritans end up emigrating to Massachusetts by 1642. The Great Migration established the basis for a stable and thriving societ

Propriety colony

colony given the right to govern themselves by "the crown

Dominion of New England

1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province (Super colony) headed by a royal governor Andros. Andros did not have to answer to elected assembly, appointed offici

Glorious Revolution

A BLOODLESS REVOLT in England against Catholic KING James II that led to his overthrow and the appointment of Protestant daughter Mary to the throne. These events in England allowed many colonists in America to get rid of hated officials too.

Jacob Leisler

German immigrant that helped overthrow the Dominion of New England's governor Andros (inspired by Glorious Revolution not choosing him as governor). He assumed the office of governor of New York without King's permission and controlled the province with h

Praying indians

Name given to the 2000 indians who were captured after King Phillip's War and converted to Christianity and were living in communities that were under the supervision of the Puritans

New Lights/Old Lights

division of religion as a result of the Great Awakening. New Lights:emotional salvaton. Old Lights: traditional calvinist principle of rational puritans and limited theocracy

Pontiac's Rebellion

Indians saw English victory as a treat because they aided French in war. They were confused over land trades, fur trade, and tribal relations. In 1763 an Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed B

Sugar Act of 1764

A tax on molasses imported from the West Indies...it lowered the tax on molasses but incresed government authority to crack down on smuggling. Accused smugglers could be judged without trial. This was not for economic benefit, but in efforts to strengthen

Declaratory Act of 1766

Came after parliment repealed the Stamp Act. Reaffirmed Parliament's right "to bind" the colonies "in all cases whatsover". It defined absolute and unqualified sovereignty over its North American colonies. Denied colonists views that only their representa

Sons and Daughters of Liberty

Opponents of the Stamp Act led by Samuel Adams, the Sons and Daughters of Liberty were a group of protesters that intimidated tax collectors by attacking their homes, burning them in effigy, and tarring and feathering them. These acts were to PROTEST the

Coercive Acts of 1774

In response to tea party, they closed Boston harbor, transferred trials of British to britain, required quartering of soldiers, made cops and council in MA selected by governor, banned town meeting, instituted military governor, and had sheriffs select ju

Battle of Saratoga

(1777) Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most

Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom

written in 1776 by Jefferson and Madison. Argued that the concept of compulsory religion is wrong, no forced religious worship or ministry and no discrimination on account of his opinions or belief but free to believe what they wish, and that these rights

Articles of Confederation

A plan devised by the Continental Congress in November 1777 for forming the national government as a loose confederation of states. The plan did not provide for an executive or national judiciary and instead relied on a congress. The effort to protect Rev

primogeniture and entail

Part of the two legal doctrines governing the INHERITANCE of PROPERTY. required that a man's real property pass in its entirety to his oldest son. The second requried that property could only be left to direct descendants (usually sons), and not to person


A trading center which once existed near the current location of St. Louis and was inhabited by 40,000 native Americans in 1200 A.D.
Largest population of any American city until 1800s (NY and Philly)

Gendered Labor

Housework is an example of work that is done inside the family without extrinsic rewards. Domestic labor maintains families and sustains the economy. Women continue to do a disproportionate share of the household labor. In recent decades, men have increas

Vacuum domicilium

empty vacuum"
english legal doctrine meaning that lands not occupied could be taken. it served as a basis for taking native territory


Powhatan's brother who became the head of the native confederacy after Powhatan's death. He resumed the effort to defend tribal lands from European encroachments. IMPORTANT because his attacks on the white settlers of Jamestown helped to end the Virginia

starving time

The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as the "starving time" to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain

Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony
Included agreement on natural and equal rights


An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought. This policy supported the ideology of turning colonies into factories. GOVERNMENT sh

Navigation Acts

A series of British regulations. Taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to CONTROL and REGULATE colonial trade. INCREASED British-colonial trade and tax revenues. Before, Dutch was benefitting from world w

racial solidarity

ONE race separating themselves from majority to gain recognition and power in a unified effort.
ANY other race besides Europeans could be enslaved

John Sassamon

Native American (who learned to read and write english) man who was killed for warning the English that Metacomet was planning to attack them then was assassinated for warning English. Real name was Wassausmon. Some people think that my death caused the b

Samson Occum

Was a Mohican indian who was CONVERTED to christianity, EDUCATED by American Christians, and ORDAINED a Presbyterian minister. WROTE Wheatley criticizing christian ministers who spoke of liberty while owning slaves.

George Whitefield

(1714 - 1770) An English preacher who belonged to the Church of England (Anglicans). His work led to the Great Awakening in North America. He made many trips to the colonies and was living in Georgia at the time of his death.

Seven Years War

AKA French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.

Proclamation Line of 1763

An order in which Britain prohibited its American colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. Result of Pontiac Rebellion. George Washington secretly encouraged purchase of this land as a POWER MOVE.

Stamp Act of 1765

1765) a law passed by Parliament that raised tax money by requiring colonists to pay for an official stamp whenever they bought paper items such as newspapers, licenses, and legal documents. 1st time parliament tried to raise money from direct taxes in th

Virtual representation

British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members, colonists wanted Actual Representation causing conflicts with Britain

Lord Dunmore's Proclamation

On November 7th, 1775 Lord Dunmore of Virginia promised freedom to any slave who fought for the British

gradual emancipation laws

The post-war years witnessed the gradual abolition of slavery in the North. Laws failed to emancipate the existing slave population, thereby leaving the owners' current human property largely intact. For decades, then, African Americans in the North lived

Federalists 10

This essay was written by James Madison. As a federalist he believed in a strong and centralized government, with a series of checks and balances that would be outlined in the Constitution.This was part of many essays written to ALLEVIATE anti federalists

Columbian Exchange

series of items traded between the Old and New worlds purposely and accidentall
Europe received corn, tobacco, and cotton from "New World". Natives in "New World" received wheat, rice, sugar, cows/horses/ sheep, and DISEASES like smallpox influenza and me

General Court

A Puritan representative assembly elected by the freemen; they assisted the governor; this was the EARLY form of Puritan DEMOCRACY in the 1600's

Body of Liberties

created in 1641 gave people the right to trial by jury, freemen can own property, government can not take private property, no cruel or unusual punishments, no forced self incrimination right to petition government. Is a basis for US law today!
Allowed sl

Bacon's Rebellion

(1676) Led by Nathaniel Bacon, a group of army volunteers attacked and raided Native American villiages, and then fought the governor's forces and set fire to Jamestown. The rebellion lost momentum when Bacon died of dysentery
Governor Barkley's rule of t

King Phillip's War

1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip(Metacom). The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colon

Slave Codes

A series of laws that limited the slave rights. Slave owners were allowed to impose physical punishment and to control their slaves in any fashion they sought. Prohibited slaves from owning weapons, becoming educated, and testifying against whites in cour

Boston Massacre

In March 1770, a crowd of colonists protested against British customs agents and the presence of British troops in Boston. Violence flared and five colonists were killed. TRIGGERED American Revolution. BLEW it out of proportion to get colonists against Br

Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776

The first state constitution in response to the Articles of Confederation that instituted more power in the peoples hands- significance is that it marked the beginning of a constitution and was tolerant of all religions and abolished religion test

Shay's Rebellion

1786-impoverish backcountry farmers who were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies rose up led by Daniel Shay, demanding cheap paper money, lighter taxes and suspension to property takeover.Priv. MA army crush but energize