Chapter 35

Germany First

American military strategy in spite of Pearl Harbor attack

America's task was far more complex and back-breaking [in World War II] than in World War I." Explain.

America's task in WWII was more complex because now they have to fight in a two front war, one against Japan over the Pacific and one against Germany over the Atlantic. America was also torn between which side to focus the war against, because of Pearl Ha

Axis Powers

The World War II alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan

Internment Camps

Detention centers where more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were relocated during World War II by order of the President.

Korematsu v. U.S.

1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 2 each survivor

How did the war affect liberal ideals and goals at home?

The war ended some of the liberal ideas during the time at home, stopping many of the New Deal programs and also focused all the jobs on the war effort. Most notably, America was once again united in race, except for the Japanese, who were sent to Internm

War Production Board

During WWII, FDR established it to allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers

War Labor Board

Acted as a supreme court for labor cases. Did more harm than good when it tried to limit wages, which led to strikes.

What effects did the war have on manufacturing, agriculture and labor?

The war changed America industrially because it allowed America to enter total war, and have the government take control over much of the aspects of industry in America. It also ended the Great Depression. The War Production Board took over the industry,

Matthew Perry

A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade, thus brining western influence to Japan while showing American might.

Meiji Government

the name for Japan's new government that launched the country into ambitious industrialization and militarization

Picture Brides

immigrant workers wives who would gain citizenship by marriage (now modern mail-order bride)

Gentleman's Agreement

an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration or students, and Japan would not allow further immigration to the U.S.

Issei, Nissei

1st generation immigrants from Japan; naturalized or native-born citizens of US . All experienced racial animosity.

In what way can it be said that the reason's for Japanese immigrants' success also caused them trouble?

The Japanese were extremely successful in America because after Matthew Perry came to Japan and opened its ports, the Meiji government was very selective of its people they sent overseas because they were representatives of the Japanese nation. They came


The "Women's Army Axillary Corps", an acronym given to reference women in the army. Women being in the army changed their roles in society and gained them new respect.


Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Service in the Navy


Mexican workers that were brought to America to work when so many men and women were gone from home during World War II that there weren't enough workers.

Rosie the Riveter

A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.

What opportunities were opened to women as a result of the war?

Due to the conscription draft, many men were not a home, and thus women were able to get their first jobs outside of the house. Not only did women work in the industry, but there were also some women served in the military, including the WAACS, WAVES, and

A. Philip Randolph

Black leader, who threatens a march to end discrimination in the work place; Roosevelt gives in with companies that get federal grants.

Fair Employment Practices Commission

state and local laws governing eeo that are often more comprehensive than federal laws and apply to small employers

Zoot Suit Riots

A series of riots in L.A. California during WW2, soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican youths because of the zoot suits they wore.

What effect did the war have on the nation's minorities?

The war had a rioting effect on the nation's minorities, encouraging them to move from the South, especially the blacks, so that they could start new lives. Cotton picking was mechanized, thus many of the blacks moved West and North in search of new jobs.

What economic effects resulted from American participation in the war?

Due to the war, America was lifted from its depression when it entered the war during a depression. The war caused profits to double, and also the Gross National Product to double. However, it left the nation with a terrible debt because of the high costs

Douglas MacArthur

(1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, befor

Bataan Death March

Japanese forced about 60,000 of americans and philippines to march 100 miles with little food and water, most died or were killed on the way

Describe Japanese victories in the Pacific in the months following Pearl Harbor.

The Japanese victories over in the Pacific were concise and precise, taking over an island after island, or country by country. They took over Guam, Wake Island, the Philippines, Hong Kong and also mainland China and many other islands. The loss of Philip

Battle of the Coral Sea

A battle between Japanese and American naval forces that stopped the Japanese advance on Australia.


An important battle in the Asian part of the war, the Americans sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers

Chester Nimitz

United States admiral of the Pacific fleet during World War II who used aircraft carriers to destroy the Japanese navy (1885-1966)

Why was Midway an important battle?

US and Japan fought in battles overseas, and the first major one was the Battle of the Coral Sea, in which both sides suffered heavy casualties, and was a war in which none of the boats ever saw each other and fought with planes. without ever being in the


one of the Solomon Islands in southwest Pacific, Japanese building airstrip, August 1942 battle, Allies won

Island Hopping

A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others


Americans secured this remote Pacific island from Spain after the war over Cuba. Americans had captured it earlier, before the residents even knew that there was a war going on.

What strategy did the United States use to defeat the Japanese?

The American strategy to defeat the Japanese was to island hop around Japan, not to attack their country directly but to take over all the islands around it and surround them and hopefully starve them to surrender. It was led General MacArthur and also Ad

Wolf Packs

German submarines that traveled in groups in the North Atlantic Ocean to attack US ships and merchant ships.

Erwin Rommel

German field marshal noted for brilliant generalship in North Africa during World War II (1891-1944)

Bernard Montgomery

British General who cut off Rommel from advancing into Africa

El Alamein

Combined German and Italian forces were beaten near Alexandria, which lead to the Allied taking of Morocco and Algeria

Battle of Stalingrad

Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union.

The war against Hitler looked much better at the end of 1942 than it had in the beginning." Explain.

The war against Hitler looked much better later in 1942 than in the beginning because there were many turning points in the war during the middle of the year. One of which was the sacrifice of many American spies to obtain the Enigma Machine, a machine wh

Soft Underbelly of Europe

Churchill wanted to hit Germany up from North Africa and through Italy. This attack drew some og Hitler's men and supplies and it did defeat Italy, but it delayed D-day and gave Russia extra time to draw farther into Eastern Europe.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

American General who began in North Africa and became the Commander of Allied forces in Europe.


A wartime conference held at Casablanca, Morocco that was attended by de Gaulle, Churchill, and FDR. The Allies demanded the unconditional surrender of the axis, agreed to aid the Soviets, agreed on the invasion Italy, and the joint leadership of the Free


An important invasion that lead to the removal of Mussolini from government, only to have him put back later

Describe the purpose and outcome of the Invasion of North Africa.

The purpose of the Invasion of North Africa was to open a new front so that Germany did not have to focus its military efforts on Russia only, which was causing many Russian casualties. The US and Britain agreed to opening a second front, but had differen


Meeting in 1943; Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill; confirmed their defense to crush Hitler.


175000 Allied troops invading the beaches of Normandy; Also called Operation Overload. The early hours of the day were spent with airborne attacks to break up the German resistance. The beaches of Normandy (which were broken into 5 groups) were stormed by


A region in northwestern France on the English channel

George Patton

Allied Commander of the Third Army. Was instrumental in winning the Battle of the Bulge. Considered one of the best military commanders in American history.

Why could June 6, 1944 be considered THE turning point of the war?

June 6, 1944 was considered the turning point of the war because it was the biggest victory for the Allies since the war has begin, and was also the begin of the decline of Germany. The Tehran Conference was a meeting in which the leaders of the Allied na

Thomas Dewey

Expected winner of the 1948 election. He was the Republican Nominee.

Henry Wallace

A former Democratic who ran on the New Progressive Party due to his disagreement on Truman's policy with the Soviets. He caused the Democratic party to split even more during the election season.

Harry S Truman

Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb

Why was the choice of a vice-presidential candidate important and difficult for the democrats in 1944?

The choice for the vice-presidential candidate was important and difficult because there was no extremely viable option for them other than FDR, who was already running as President for his fourth time. The Republicans picked out Thomas Dewey, who was kno


A Spanish facist party that supported Francisco Franco during the Spanish civil war

What factors led to Roosevelt's victory over Dewey?

Roosevelt's victory over Dewey was attributed mostly because the war was going well for the US and FDR was already in the presidency when Americans were winning the war, causing a rush of good feelings that benefited FDR. If he were to be losing, then he

Battle of the Bulge

A 1944-1945 battle in which Allied forces turned back the last major German offensive of World War II.


When Germans asked Americans to surrender at Bastogne how did the American commander respond?

Elbe River

Part of the iron curtain between East and West Germany


A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.

V-E Day

May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered

Describe the last six months of war in Europe.

The last six months of war in Europe was a decisive victory for the allies. Hitler saw that the Battle of Berlin was the last chance for the Germany army, and even then it was still unlikely for Germany to win it, so he killed himself and his wife too. Th

Iwo Jima

a bloody and prolonged operation on the island of Iwo Jima in which American marines landed and defeated Japanese defenders (February and March 1945)


A campaign in the closing days of World War II in the Pacific (April to June 1945)


in World War II, Japanese pilots who loaded their aircraft with bombs and crashed them into enemy ships

Explain the meaning of the title of this section.

The meaning of the title is that Japan was pretty much killing themselves and dying nearing the end of the war. American submarines were devastating Japanese merchant ships and also Japan was losing an island by island, as American troops took over the la


July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.


City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II. (p. 797)


Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).


emperor of Japan who renounced his divinity and became a constitutional monarch after Japan surrendered at the end of World War II (1901-1989)

What was the military impact of the atomic bomb?

The military impact of the Atomic Bomb was that it would soon revolutionize the bomb. The atomic bomb was approved solely because of the fear that Germany would produce one before them, and it was all carried out in secret. The Manhattan Project had many

George Marshall

United States general and statesman who as Secretary of State organized the European Recovery Program (1880-1959)

This complex conflict was the best fought war in America's history." Explain

This war was best fought in America's history because America suffered the least total casualties, compared to other nations, and also had nothing in its homeland touched, due to its distance from Europe and Asia. It also boosted America's industry and Am

What questions concerning WWII have historians attempted to answer?

Historians tried to answer questions such as why did America drop the 2 bombs on Japan even though it seemed that victory was eminent. It was thought that President Truman wanted to scare off and isolate the Soviet Union by showing the power of the bomb,