AP US History I Ch 9

4 candidates in Election of 1824

William Crawford, Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay

Calhoun was originally a candidate of the Election of 1824.. what happened?

He dropped out when he realized he didn't have the support (and Jackson had so much!)

Who wins the Election of 1824, but doesn't become president?

Jackson. He won the popular vote and the electoral college, but he did not get majority in the electoral college. The vote had to go to the House of Representatives.

Who suffered a stroke during the campaign for the Election of 1824?


Who won the Election of 1824 in the House of Representatives to become president? Why?

Adams. Clay persuaded the House to vote for him.

Clues for Jackson and his supporters that a corrupt bargain had occurred?

Adams named Clay Secretary of State and announced support for Clay's American System

What was Jackson's supporters' idea for this corrupt bargain thing in 1824?

Clay made a deal with Adams by throwing his support in the House to Adams in return for the position as Secretary of State to advance his own presidential chances next time

2 unpopular policies of the Adams presidency (general)

Support for federal aid in internal improvements, sending US delegates to conference of Latin American republics

Adams's Unpopular Policy: Federal Aid for Internal Improvements

Adams thought some projects were so big that only federal money could do it; 1 company couldn't build a railroad, it was too big! (Believed in active federal gov't and had seen some states wouldn't get it done)

Adams's Unpopular Policy: Latin American Conference

Haiti was at that conference, so did this imply the US was recognizing Haiti as a country? It had become independent through a slave rebellion - very unsettling to the south!

Did Adams own slaves?

No (Thus, south feared antislavery movements!)

Main issue of Election of 1828


Election of 1828 attack on Jackson

It was claimed that Jackson's marriage to Rachel Donaldson was illegitimate due to unfinished divorce papers at the time of their marriage. Hurt both of them deeply and ruined Rachel's reputation.

Election of 1828 attack on Adams

It was claimed that Adams acted as a pimp for the Russian Czar when he was a missionary

Who won the Election of 1828?

Jackson (clearly!)

What was strongly shown in the results of Election of 1828?

Sectional divide. All of south voted for Jacson

Significance of the Election of 1828

Now have a political division between 2 prominent national parties again (Democrats and Republicans)

Was the Election of 1828 more revolutionary than the Election of 1800?

No. Jackson won because voting rights were opened to men without land, and that is why he won. This Jacksonian Democracy was already in place.

Appeal of Jackson

Born poor and pulled himself up by the boot straps! He was the common man that understood average Americans

Did Jackson create Jacksonian Democracy? (Increase in white male suffrage)

No, but he put it best into use

What happened to political parties following the Election of 1828?

Democratic Republicans became National Republicans, and Andrew Jackson led the Democratic Party

What happened to politics following the Election of 1828?

Became a national sport with parades, rallies, and floats (I give you a barbecue, you give me your vote) (Pork barrel politics!)

Who supported the Democratic party?

Southern planter elite, immigrant city workers, small frontier farmers

Jackson: small gov't or big gov't guy?

Small gov't. (states' rights, strict interpretation) That's what was more popular down south, and he had a lot of southern support.

What did Jackson not trust?

Eastern establishments and monopolies, especially the bank, that had special privileges

A movement towards increased public participation in gov't, politics, and other areas of society

Jacksonian Democracy

What does economic equality mean?

We don't all have the same amount of money, but we have the opportunity to get the same amount of money

Pre-emption Laws: Supported by Jackson?


Pre-emption Laws: What are they?

The law that if someone improves land without owning it, they will have the first opportunity to buy it if someone else has interest

Most controversial about Jackson?

Excessive use of the veto (Used it more often than all of the previous presidents, of which there are 6, combined)

Jacksonian Democracy: Political leadership

Spoils system opened gov't positions to Jackson's supporters by removing those of the opposite party

Jacksonian Democracy: White man suffrage (right to vote)

Land ownership no longer necessary; voter participation increased

Jacksonian Democracy: Selection of political candidates

Picked directly by the people through conventions instead of indirectly

Which election was more revolutionary: 1800 or 1828? Why?

1828. Introduced the opposing Democratic party, and first time voting was opened to all white men. Also a larger structural change in 1828 than in 1800, where there was simply a shift between political parties

Maysville Road Bill Veto situation

(1830) Jackson vetoes a bill that would have provided federal aid to build a Kentucky road

Maysville Road Bill Veto: Why maybe a states' rights decision?

Jackson thinks that funding internal improvements is a state function and too "big gov't" (if federal gov't were to do it)

Maysville Road Bill Veto: Why maybe politically motivated?

Jackson hated Clay for stealing the presidency from him, and Kentucky was Clay's home state

John Quincy Adams policy on Indians?

Tried to resist state efforts to remove native americans from their land b/c he believed it was a federal job

Jackson's solutions to the Indian "prblem

Assimilation and removal

What is assimilation?

To adopt society's culture and understand it fully (What Jackson wanted the Indians to do)

Five Civilized Tribes: who were they?

Group of 5 Indian tribes that assimilation was the key to stay in their land

Ways that indians assimilated

Adopted western clothing and tools; gave up hunting for farming

What happened to the Five Civilized Tribes' attempt at assimilation?

They were removed anyways

Why was Jackson for Indian removal?

Thought it was the only way for Indians to survive b/c a mixed race society would never work

Indian Removal Act of 1830

Treaties were signed that exchanged Indian lands for territory west of the Mississippi; passed by Jackson to let Indians survive; gave funds for the president's use to remove Native Americans by force if necessary

How did Jackson get the treaties with the Indians signed if the tribal chief didn't agree?

He would find a minority that wanted to leave, and he would sign the treaty with them and thus obligate the entire tribe to abide by the treaty's terms

Why did Georgia want Indian land so badly?

Had grown rapidly, so very hungry for land; rumor that gold found in Georga Hills

Cherokee Nation v Georgia (1831)

Ruled that Cherokee had a right to their lands, but they weren't a sovereign state, so they couldn't sue in a US court over Georgia's voiding their right to self rule

Worcester v Georgia (1832)

IN FAVOR OF CHEROKEE; Marshall ruled that states may not violate federal treaties with Indians, and the federal gov't should protect Indians from white interference (states CANNOT ignore treaties the federal gov't has made with Native Americans) (thus dec

How did Jackson react to the Supreme Court's decisions on the Cherokee and Georgia?

Didn't think Marshall could enforce it (Supreme Court did not have enforcement powers!)

What happened after Worcester v Georgia?

The ruling was ignored, and the Cherokee were removed and led down the Trail of Tears

Trail of Tears stats

About 1/4 of the Cherokee die along the way; once they get to the Oklahoma reservations, more die from disease and starvation due to poor farming conditions

Why did so many Cherokee die on the Trail of Tears?

Jobs designated to people, like to deliver food along the way or provide boats, were not fulfilled

Peggy Eaton Affair: Main situation (not reactions)

Jackson's secretary of war, John Eaton, had married Peggy O'Neale. SHe had the reputation of being very forward in her father's tavern, and it was suspected that the husband in his first marriage had committed suicide while overseas due to a love affair b

Peggy Eaton Affair: Reactions

Peggy shunned by cabinet wives, especially Mrs. John C Calhoun; Jackson strongly defended John Eaton b/c he remembered how his own wife, Rachel, had her reputation ruined with slander during his election of 1828

Peggy Eaton Affair; Results

Jackson concluded that the entire affair was Calhoun's plot to discredit Eaton and advance Calhoun's own desires to be president; relationship between Jackson and Calhoun (VP) strained

Background of the Nullification Crisis

Tariff of 1816 only reluctantly accepted by the south; Panic of 1819 drove down cotton prices and raised cost of mfg goods

Progress of tariff of 1816 to tariff of 1824 to tariff of 1828 (tariff of abominations)

Tariff goes up and up with each one (Southerners remember Calhoun convinced them to accept this tariff in the first place, and they are mad!)

What does Calhoun do to fix the tariff issue with the south following the Tariff of 1828 (Abominations)?

Anonymously writes the South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828)

South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828)

Anonymous document written by Calhoun that asserted the Jeffersonian idea of nullification and set out a procedure for doing it

Calhoun's intention with the South Carolina Exposition and Protest?

Thinks that this will scare the federal gov't into lowering the tariff, and nullification won't happen (it would be bad if states could decide what they would and wouldn't obey!), and then he could come forward and be the savior of the country and regain

Webster-Hayne Debate

Webster (Massachusetts) said nullification makes the Union non-existent (a rope of sand!); Hayne said it protects the interests of the minority that weren't being represented

Jefferson Day Dinner: what does it reveal?

Where Jackson stands on the issue of nullification...Doesn't like it! ("Our Union: It must be preserved!")

Jefferson Day Dinner: Calhoun's plan

Calhoun and his buddies had strategized to smoke Jackson out and force him to reveal which side he takes on nullification

Jefferson Day Dinner: Calhoun's take on nullification

Good ("The Union, NEXT to our liberty, most dear!")

Does Jackson believe in small gov't?

Yes, but not to the point where states are supreme to federal gov't (Jackson not willing to go as far to allow the states to nullify federal law!)

A rebellion in which Nat Turner and his slave followers killed 60 whites and spread absolute terror in the hearts of southerners

Nat Turner's rebellion

Reactions of Nat Turner's rebellion

Virginia House of Burgesses considers abolishing slavery; southerners begin to fear federal interference in slavery

Where did the Nullification Crisis mainly take place?

South Carolina

Lowered rates to the level of the 1824 tariff

Tariff of 1832

South Carolina's reaction to the Tariff of 1832

Still not satisfied and nullifies it

Henry Clay's reaction to South Carolina's reaction to the Tariff of 1832

Sees civil war could occur, so proposes the Tariff of 1833

Gradually, but significantly, lowered the tariff over a period of 10 years

Compromise Tariff of 1833

President Jackson's reaction to South Carolina's reaction to the Tariff of 1832

Asks Congress to use force to go into SC and collect customs duties (the tariff)

Why couldn't South Carolina continue the Nullification Crisis and perhaps start civil war?

No other southern state came to SC's support

Result ofNullification Crisis?

South Carolina accepted the Compromise Tariff of 1833, but nullified the Force Bill (so US gov't can't have the last say!) Nothing has been solved, as nullification is still there

Jackson's war on the Second Bank of the United States

The charter was not set to expire until 1836, but Biddle, Webster, and Clay make it an issue in 1832. Clay thought being pro-bank would advance his own presidential chances, and he thinks that no matter what, Jackson would lose votes.

Why did Clay think that no matter what Jackson did about the bank, he (Jackson) would lose votes?

If he vetoed it, money people of the Northeast would take away their support. If he signed it, western people would take away their support (had developed deep distrust in banks, and it was hard for westerners to get loans)

Henry Clay's miscalculation about Jackson losing votes no matter what he did about the bank?

There weren't enough money people in the Northeast to swing an entire election!

Jackson does what to the Bank re-charter?

Vetoes it! Thought it was a privileged monopoly that had too much power and wealth (was not subject to state taxation) (FAVORED THE RICH! rich got richer.)

Who won the ELection of 1832?

Jackson; saw this as the popular will to wage war on the Bank!

Pet banks

1832, Jackson removed gov't money and put them into state banks owned by Jackson supporters (Democrats)

Required that all public land be purchased with specie (gold and silver coins) (1836)

Specie Circular

How was New York becoming so important?

Had the Erie Canal for commerce, Knickerbocker and Hudson River Schools for culture, and many Democratic banks that held federal deposits for economy

Results of Jackson's policies on the banks

Land sales fell, credit unavailable, businesses failed, unemployment rose

Who was the Panic of 1837 (Jackson's fault) blamed on?

New President Martin Van Buren

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Proposals by Madison and Jefferson in 1798 that declared states' rights to nullify federal laws they viewed as unconstitutional

An 1832 declaration that the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were to be nullified in South Carolina; directly led into the Nullification Crisis

Ordinance of Nullification

Jackson's response to the Ordinance of Nullification

Sent troops into South Carolina to enforce the tariffs and quell the rebels

Olive branch and the sword

Compromise Tariff and the Force Bill (caused South Carolina to repeal their Ordinance of Nullification)

Force Bill

(The sword) Gave Jackson the ability to eenforce collection of tariffs using arms

Compromise Tariff of 1833

Clay's tariff that lowered rates over 10 years back to the rate during the tariff of 1816 (the olive branch)

Treaty of New Echota

Signed by a Cherokee MINORITY that ceded Cherokee land and forced the rest of the tribe to march along the Trail of Tears (Jackson thought he was justified in doing this!)

A group of informal advisors that Jackson was thought to have relied on more during his presidency than the members of his official Cabinet

Kitchen Cabinet

Get a 100!


Martin Van Buren

Man who was convinced by the election of 1824 that there was a need for renewed two-party competition, and appointed Jackson to lead the new Democratic Party!

Why was Martin Van Buren so convinced of his need for a renewed two-party competition after 1824?

Republicans had broken into sectional pieces in 1824 without a strong opposition party. No one had the majority vote (and House had to decide president amid accusations of a corrupt bargain!) Needed another party to decide a clear winner each time

Democratic Republican party changed its name from what to what?

National Republican party to Whigs

When did the National Republicans become the Whigs?

During Jackson's second term

Why did Whigs begin to gain more support during Jackson's second term?

Southerners were unhappy with the pet banks and Jackson's opposition to federal aid for internal improvements (some feared the South would lag behind the North unless it got a push)

When was the Treaty of New Echota signed?

1835, after Worcester v Georgia (1832)

Native American uprising that resisted removal until 1831; downfall of this war persuaded other Old Northwest tribes to cede their lands

Black Hawk War

Jackson's role in the First Seminole War

Had exceeded authority and hung 2 British subjects and captured forts

War that began as a result of the Indian Removal Act; bloodiest and longest war in US history at the time; peace treaty never signed

Second Seminole War

Jacksons role in the Tariff of Abominations?

His supporters in Congress helped pass the bill so that blame would be put on Adams, but Jackson was blamed instead! (Jackson wasn't yet the pres.)

How did the Tariff of Abominations (of 1828) favor western agricultural interests and New England manufacturing interests? How did it go against the south?

Favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs on goods they needed, and New England interests by raising imported textile tariffs. Went against the South because it made the goods they needed more expensive

Why did Calhoun think the Tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional?

It didn't benefit everyone

Censure of Jackson

Jackson was censured in 1834 (by a Whig-dominated Senate) for withholding documents associated with his actions in taking funds out of the SEcond Bank of the United States

Result of Specie Circular

Stopped land speculation, decreased sale of public lands, and directly preceded the Panic of 1837

The action or act of abolishing a system, practice, or institution


What led up to the "gag rule" on abolition?

The South was being bombarded with Abolitionist stuff to end slavery, so Jackson banned the post office from delivering this literature to the south.

What is the "gag rule" on abolition?

Rule passed in the House of Representatives that forbade the discussion of bills that restricted slavery (ended up increasing anti-slavery petitions, though!)

Adams's argument against the "gag rule" on abolitions?

It violated the First Amendment right "to petition the Government for a redress of grievances

Charles River Bridge Co. vs Warren Bridge CoThe Warren Bridge's bridge took away the Charles River Bridge's traffic and tolls. Charles sued (both in Massachusetts on the same river, so wasn't fair). Ruled that Massachusetts had not entered a contract that

Charles River Bridge Co. vs Warren Bridge Co

What did the Charles River Bridge Co. vs Warren Bridge Co case SIGNAL?

Supreme Courts transition towards states' rights and away from Marshall's Courts nationalism

Jackson's common man image

Jackson born poor, but pulled himself up by the stirrups; seen as the common man's image of their better self (represented the people better than any French aristocrat would have!)

Spoils system (rotation in office)

Removal of officeholders of the rival party (Jackson did NOT invent this, and removed only about 1/5 of federal officeholders left over from Adams) (hoped to give as many people a chance to work in the gov't as possible and not to create an elite section