Chapter 24

Union Pacific

Grenville M. Dodge was the construction chief for the Union Pacific Railroad had an advantage of building the rail over flat prairie.Imp:
he faced resistance from Native americans and used ex-solidiers and irish immigrants for construction, portrays impor


Irish immigrant males who worked frantically in construction gangs on the Union Pacific railroad, previously fought for the Union.
They would sometimes fight attacking Indians who were trying to protect their own land. Hated by most americans.

Central Pacific

A railroad that started in Sacramento and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promontory Point, Utah on May 10, 1869, where the golden spike ceremony was held.
The California-based railroad company, headed by Leland Stanfor, that employed Chinese

the big four

A term used to describe the Central Pacifics Railroad's monopoly for having an arm in practically every sector of California's commerce

iornclad oaths/ yellow dog contracts

The Ironclad Oath was an oath promoted by Radical Republicans and opposed by President Abraham Lincoln to limit the political activity of ex-Confederate soldiers and supporters.A yellow-dog contract (a yellow-dog clause of a contract, or an ironclad oath)

Bessemer Process

A process for converting iron into the much more durable and versatile steel; process consisted of blowing air through molten iron to burn out the impurities.
This made possible the production of steel in great qunatities and large dimensions, for use in

Haymarket Square

Labor disorders had broken out and on May 4 1886, the Chicago police advanced on a protest; alleged brutalities by the authorities. Suddenly a dynamite bomb was thrown that killed or injured dozens, including police. It is still unknown today who set off

American Beauty rose

John D. Rockefeller; supported Laissez-Faire politics. In order to grow the most beautiful rose, you need to cut all of the others.
In another way, if you want to own a best company, you need to "cut" other companies

Samuel Gompers

American labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL), and served as the AFL's president from 1886-1894 and from 1895 until his death in 1924. He promoted harmony among the different

William Graham Sumner

Darwin's chief academic disciple whose most lasting contribution, made in his book Folkways (1907), was to argue that forms of societal organization such as democracy or aristocracy were set by the working of tradition or the customs of a community and no

Andrew Carnegie

1835-1919. rags to riches story, son of Scottish immigrants, came to earn one of the biggest fortunes of his time, which he mostly donated to the foundation of thousands of libraries and social institutions;
accused of being janus-faced due to his non-int

John D Rockefeller

A wealthy philanthropist that created the Standard Oil Company and controlled 90% of oil refineries. He bought out and took over other companies by using trust agreements. In theses agreements, companies would turn their stock over to a group of trustees

J.P Morgan

Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way;
he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons" key figure in the victory of America

vertical/ horizontal intergration

combining many firms engaged in the same type of business into one large corporation, acquiring control of all the steps required to change raw materials into finished product
this corprate expansion strategy that involves controlling each step in the pro

National Labor Union

1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted an eight hour work days, banking reform, greenbackism, equal rights to all people, and an end to conviction labor. This group attempted to unite all labourers, but collapsed when Sylvis died, and was disbanded

Knights of Labor/ Terence Powdery

(GC) , one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century. Founded by seven Philadelphia tailors in 1869 and led by Uriah S. Stephens, its ideology may be described as producerist, demanding an end to child and convict labor, equal

The grange

It was a farmers' movement involving the affiliation of local farmers into area "granges" to work for their political and economic advantages.
The official name of the National Grange is the Patrons of Husbandry the Granger movement was successful in regu

American Federation of Labor

helped get laws passed that improved working conditions like long hours, ended child labor, and paying for injuries received on the job
Used practical tactics aimed at bread and butter issues, which was pursued by Samuel Gompers who became the head of the

Interstate Commerce Act

(488) 1887 Banned discrimination in rates between long and short hauls, required railroad to public rate schedules and file with govt, and declared all interstate rail rates be "reasonable and just."
ICC administered but relied on courts to enforce. Hapha

closed shop/ trade union

A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.
In the benifit of workeres and their rights, un seen until now. Hated by monopoly holders.

Hillbillies and lintheads

These white folk poured out of the hills and hollows to seek jobs in the cotton textile mills; entire families worked from dawn to dusk amid the whirring spindles
They were paid at half the rate of their northern counterparts and often received their comp

Gibson Girl

Women, who had swarmed to factories and had been encouraged by recent inventions, found new opportunities, and this created by Charles Dana Gibson,
became the romantic ideal of the age; young, athletic, attractive, and outdoorsy. new image for the america


Injunctions include covenants not to compete. Covenants not to compete must be reasonably limited in time, geographic area, and scope.
Covenants not to compete on employment contracts are generally not enforced unless they involve trade secrets, customer

Sherman Anti Trust Act

First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting.
However, it was initially misused against labor unions, Another Government attempt to stop the immensely powerful

Thomas Edison

(NJ) Invented the phonograph(cylinder) He experimented on the telephone, harmonic telegraphs, automatic telegraphs, and messages recorders.
He also recorded with artists on cylinders, then later Diamond Disc, "Wizard of Menlo Park

Lord of the rails

The Big Four operated through two construction companies, they kept their hands relatively clean by not becoming involved in the bribery of congressmen
Each ran their own monopoly, and together they owned the path for American industry.

Alexander Graham Bell

American inventor and educator; his interest in electrical and mechanical devices to aid people with hearing impairments.
led to the development and patent of the telephone, "Mr. Watson, come here. I want you.

Wabash Case

Case challenged legislation made the State of Illinois against railroads; the state was trying to appease the demands of farmers for lower railroad rate
Ruled that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce., 1880's / States may NOT re

Cornelius Vanderblit

This man amassed a fortune in the steamboat business before venturing into rail. He led the modernization of older rails by placing his fortune into the conversion of eastern lines to common gauge steel rails, and consolidate many smaller rail lines under