APUSH Test 3 (post-Revolution)

state" constitutions

written incorporations that made each colony its own state body after the Revolution and ensured the power of the STATES (voting was only for white, male landowners)

Bill of Rights

a list of freedoms that the state governments were expected to protect

Legislature over government

Bi-cameral, citizens had to power to control and is one of the most important things at this point in time because it gave citizens power (government by the people, for the people)

post-revolution slavery

some states abolished slavery but none below the Mason Dixon Line- Pennsylvania and below (sectionalism); north of the Mason Dixon Line was salve free

Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom

by Thomas Jefferson stating there was no official religion in Virginia and people could worship in any way they wanted or not at all; because of this Virginia was no longer an Anglican state and established religious freedom

Articles of Confederation (1781)

there were 13 of these in total and showed that the states were united but different (for example, one state might want this thing while another state does not and they make their own laws according to their own values) as John Dickenson called it a firm

2 Continental Congress

stayed in session continually until the A of C was passed

Congress of the Confederation

only one branch of government (no executive), did not have the power to tax (states were expected to chip in and states were considered to be their own power, no federal government) no president, no court system (no power to enforce laws), couldn't regula

Post-revolution debt

State debt (money owed to citizens), domestic debt (money owed to states), and foreign debt (owed to the countries that provided aid) became a problem after the revolution because under the Articles of Confederation, the government did not have the power

The Old Northwest

the area right below The Great Lakes (Illinois etc.)

Land Ordinance of 1785

A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers. It creates the mechanism for a state to be developed in an organized fashion. In a township, there were 36 lots, 1 lot was 640 acres and so

North West Ordinance of 1787

a law that established a procedure for the admission of new states to the Union; pretty much made a template for statehood (had t to have 5,000 people to form a government, 60,000 people to apply to be a state)

States with no slavery

Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin; this was important because the majority of the government was anti-slavery and because of this the south freaked out because slavery was key to their way of life so they were worried that the government would

post-revolutionary foreign problems

Britain was still occupying forts in the west and refused to let the US trade with an affiliated British colony or country; Spain occupied EVERYTHING west of the Mississippi and Florida so nobody had any idea where the actual borders were and some settler

Barbary Pirates

AKA Barbary Corsairs or Ottoman Corsairs
Ottoman pirates and privateers that operated in North Africa on the Barbary Coast
Primarily operated in the Western Mediterranean
Seized merchant ships
Engaged in Razzias: raids on European coastal towns and villag

First Barbary War (1801-1805)

AKA Tripolitanian War
Jefferson became president in 1801
The leader (Pasha) of Tripoli (Yusuf Karamanli) tested him by demanding more tribute but Jefferson refused and Karamanli declared war
Without the consent of Congress, Jefferson sent American warship

Second Barbary War

In 1815 Commodore Stephen Decatur led American fighting men to victory and stopped the raids for good in this war
The US had been distracted by the French Revolution and the War of 1812 and forgot all about the Barbary pirates
The US was attacked again bu

Shay's Rebellion (1786)

This MA conflict caused criticism of the Articles of Confederation; weak govt; increased calls for a Constitutional Convention to revise the Articles, Daniel and the Boys 1787 - taxes are raised, land is threatened, 1000 farmers rebel and seize 4 courts a

Philadelphia in the summer of 1787

55 delegates and 12 states trying to decide whether they should revise or replaces the A of C

Virginia Plan (1787)

James Madison created this large state plan that was based on population and one place would be overrepresented due to a greater population and a 3 branch government and legislature would be based on population (1 per 30k people)

New Jersey Plan (1787)

Small-state plan" put forth at the Philadelphia convention by Patterson, proposing equal representation by state, regardless of population, in a unicameral legislature. Small states feared that the more populous states would dominate the agenda under a p

Great Compromise (1787)

Popular term for the measure which reconciled the New Jersey and Virginia plans at the constitutional convention made by Roger Sherman, giving states proportional representation in the House and equal representation in the Senate. The compromise broke the

When slave trade would stop

1808 because under the Great Compromise, the south agreed to the slavery ending if the slaves would be counted as 3/5 a person

Elastic Clause (Necessary and Proper Clause)

intentionally vague but powerful, could be bent to justify just about anything and was abused because it was open to interpretation

Separation of powers

Montesquieu, checks and balances, no one branch can overwhelm another

federalism

sharing of power between states and federal gov.

Amending the Constitution

2/3 of both houses of Congress and 2/3 of states and conventions needed to propose and amendment, 3/4 of state legislatures and 3/4 of federal conventions are needed to ratify

18th amendment

prohibition

21st amendment

repealed the 18th amendment

13th amendment

slavery abolished

7th amendment

direct election of senators

19th amendment

women's rights

26th amendment

18 years to vote

Constitution Day

Sept. 17, 1787 (39 signatures for signing)

Article 6

Supremacy Clause, supreme law of the land, this is important because this law is above all other laws

Who acted as the mediator to get the Constitution passed?

Ben Franklin, he convinces states that some of the things they didn't like about the Constitution were ok.

Federalists

people who support the constitution, organized by Ben Franklin and George Washington

Anti-federalists

people against the constitution (state rights people), organized by Patrick Henry and George Mason

9th state to ratify the constitution

New Hampshire (1788) (Virginia and New York had not ratified yet)

Federalist Papers

85 political essays in NY papers to convince the public that the federal government is important and get them on board with the constitution (Hamilton made 50, Madison made 30, John Jay made 5)

Washington and Adams

President and Vice President sworn in by Robert Livingston

Secretary of State

Thomas Jefferson

Secretary of Treasury

Alexander Hamilton

Secretary of war

Henry Knox

Attorney general

Edmund Randolf

Judiciary Act of 1789

In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures. 1 Supreme Court (national), 3 Court

John Jay

1st Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

Judicial Review

constitutionality decisions, 1st case: MARBURY vs. MADISON

When was the Bill of Rights ratified?

December 1791

Tariff of 1789

not to make government money, but to increase industry and protect the economy

Excise Tax of 1791

Taxes placed on manufactured products. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton's program. This was an indirect tax made to make money and it was one of ht most controversial things passed, and the south would not agree to this tax unle

Fugitive Slave Act of 1793

if a slave escapes to a free state, the government would bring them back and punish those who helped the slaves

BUS (Bank of the United States)

U.S. government bank created in Philadelphia, again showed the increasing power of the federal government