APUSH Chapter 5 and 6

Seven Year's War/ French and Indian War

Caused by dispute over land in western U.S. Sparked by G. Washintons clash with Native Americans; French armed Native Americans to attack settlers in west; British won b/c many Indians signed treaty with British and stopped fighting/ William Pitt promised to support war financially if colonies would supply the troops. Ends in 1763- Treaty of Paris

Treaty of Paris (1763)

France gives up all lands east of missisippi, virtual end of French empire in N. America; Spain gets louisiana from France and Cuba from Britain in exchange for Florida, French living in British territory become British citizens

Albany Plan of Union

1754; Plan for mutual defense of colonies; loose confederation of states; one grand council representing all colonial assemblies would rule- defend colonies and collect taxes; crown appointed president-general; came ot nothing- colonies did not want to give up power

General Braddock

British General that led troops in French and Indian War; Washington served under him; killed in battle- ambushed by french and indians

William Pitt

englishman who supported colonies, hero in the colonies. During F&I war-promised GB would support war financialy if colonist would provide troops- won the war; objected to stamp act and Declaratory act; 1766 Geroge III asks Pitt to make his new cabinet- Pitt falls ill and is unable to


A western Delaware who had a vision in which God commanded Indians to resume their ancestral ways. Called for an end to Indian dependence on the Anglo-Americans. God was punishing Indians for accepting European ways.

Pontiac's rebellion

anti- british government; led by Pontiac (Ottawa) Indians attacked British forts- shortages and reliazation that French would not return to help them forced indians surrender- EFFECT: George III pases Procalmation of 1763; caused GB to decide to staion ten thousand solders in New America in the New territories to intimidate the French Spanish and Indians

Proclamation of 1763

George III ordered direct control over land transactions, settlements, and trade west of appalachians; wanted to restore order to wesward expansion; recognized existing Indian claims; colonists thought this was hindering

Writ of assistance

1760- authroized by royal agov. of MA- gov't allowed to sieze illegally imported goods; halted trade with French; no need for probable cause to search ships; no privacy for private homes

James Otis

lawyer hired by smugglers to contest constitutionality of Writs of Assistance

Sugar Act

1764- ammended Molasses act; main purpose- raise revenue for British treasury to offset military costs in America; nex taxes on rum, molasses, exports must go through Britain (so merchants would buy more products from GB); petty regulations made shipping very hard; cargos seized on technical violations; cases tried in vice admiralty courts; 1766- import tax lowered to a penny- less than cost of bribing people to smuggle in goods- raised revenue; EFFECT- made oclonists more aware of restrictive british policies

vice-admiralty courts

no juries- one judge, who got 5% of cargo if they convicted the smuggler; guilty until proven innocent

George Grenville

Prime Minister of GB during Sugar Act and Stamp Act; thougth colonists were virtually represented in parlaiment; thought stamp act tax was fair; colonist not exempt form taxes b/c of their own assemblies- thought hey were same thing as local assemblies in GB

Stamp Act

Implemented by Grenville b/c British people angry over the high taxes they were paying to pay for 7 years war- colonist not paying as much- colonists had to buy special watermarked paper for all documents ; colonist furious- force stamp distributors out; thought GB was trying to take away all there claims of self govt EEFECT: made colonists reexamine their relationship with GB/ realize it might not be a good thing

virtual representation

colonists are technically represented in Parliament even though they have no specific delegate because all the delagates are supposed to preserve the interests of all British citizens, not just their constituents

Patrick Henry

young orator- urges VA house of Burgesses ot pass reloutions against stamp act- they pass only the weakes of the revolutions, but this leads other colonies ot pass similar revolutions

Loyal Nine

group of middle class artisans and small business owners- banded together to fight stamp act in Boston, pressured stamp distributors into resigning, uses tarring and feathering, burning in effigy

Declaratory Act

1766- marquis of Rockingham= New Prime Minister- angry that colonist resestid stamp act- 1766- Parliament repealed stamp act but passed Declaratory Acts- affirmed parliamentary power to legislate the colonies- colonists indifferent, but GB meant it seriously

Republican ideas

believed excessive political power is a a threat to liberty, peole should subordiante their opinions to those of elected leaders; admired civic duty; opposed to parliament having too much power


thought parliament was was foundation for unique english liberties but it had become corruptes; influenced by rebublican ideas

Samuel Adams

America should be "Christain Sparta"- appealed to americans love of protestanism and history; drafter a circular letter that was sent out to all colonial assemblies that condemned taxation without representation; began committees of correspondence in MA; 1773- published letters from Hutchinson (governor of MA) that advocated decrease of natural rights- purpose was to make colonist angry at gov.

King George III

king of england during the revolution,; worked with parliament; worsened relations with colonies- issued proclamtion of 1763; colonists emotionally attached ot him unti Common Sense was published

Charles Townshend

Came to power after WIlliam Pitt's health failed; wote New Yort Supending Act; and implemented Townshend duties wants ot raise money for GB treasury

Townshend Acts

1767- GB british people angry at parliament for not lowering their taxes; to make money- Revenue Act of 1767- Townshend put external tax on glass, paint, paper, lead and tea in colonies; did not place large tax on foreign goods like precious taxes to reduce competition; Also, created fund to pay for salarys of royal gov- took away assemblies "power of the purse" 1768- nonimportation of British goods

John Wilkes

former member of parliament; ran newspaper that criticized George III, 1768 ran for parl, agian- didnt want taxes on colonies- rally cry "wilkes and liberty!"; denied seat in parliament, arrested,- thousands of people in england and colonies protested EFFECT: colonies recognized parliament was a smalll but powerful minority and it was possible for their authority to be questioned

America Board of Customs Comissions

reinforeced Navigation Acts- implemented by Townshend; raised # of port officials; created and funcded colonial coast guard; bribes to secret informers; wanted to increase honesty of overseas shipping

Customs racketeering

legalized piracy- how the colonists saw the action of the commisioners

Boston Massacre

1770- crowd led by Crispus Attucks- antagonized soldiers- soldiers under pressure- fired into crowd- 6 wounded, 5 dead,

Crispus Attucks

Led colonist mob at Boston Massacre- killed by soldiers

Lord North

Prime Minister of GB in 1770- wanted to repair relations with colonies- 1770- repealed all townshend duties except for tea; colonsits still not satisfied 1772- began policy of paying Royal gov from customs revenue

Commitees of Correspondence

Stated by Sam Adams in MA- linked all the towns so info roculd travel fast, first organixed attempt to create political cooperation over a wide area; idea spread thoughout the colonies- 1773- colony level committes formed

Tea Act

1773- lowered import duties on teas, lowered price ot consumers- thought Colonists would be appeased and start buying tea again; Americans threatened- saw it as a ploy to raise money for GB

British East India Company

legal monopoly on sale of tea in British empire- affected by nonimportation of british goods- Gb could not afford ot led company fail- led to Tea Act

Boston Tea Party

Commitees of Correspondence had been keeping tea ships out of Boston harbor- Nov 1773- one ship got through hichinson (gov) really wanted the tea to be unloaded- DEc16- 50 young men dress up as indians and swarm ship- dump all tea cargo overboard- do not harm sailors

Lord Dunmore's Proclamation

VA governor- wanted to undermine planter dominated society- 1775-promised freedom to any slave that joined the British army- hostile patriots drove him from the colony

Quebec Act

made roman catholism official religion of Quebec; gave canada's governors more power, increased loyalty of french-canadians; extened Quebec's claim into Ohio valley, land would be governed by French law

Coercive Acts

aka Intolerable Acts- 1774-
1. GB navy would close Boston harbor if they did not pay for tea in time;
2. MA government act- revoked MA charter- made gov't less democratic- (actually more like other colonies governments); 3. Administration of Justice Act- any perosn who killed while enforinc royal authority woul dbe tried in England- more likely to be found innocent
4. New Quartering Act- goev could sieze and use empty private buildings to house soldiers
EFFECT: convinced colonists that GB was trying to take away their liberties

MA Government Act

upper house in legislature appointed for life by crown; governor had absolute control over judges and sheriff; jurymen appointed by sheriff, no more than 1 town meeting a year without govermental permission

First Continental Congress

1774- response ot intolerable Acts- committees of correspondence from every colony except GA- met in Philly; endorsed Sufflok Acts; decided that defiensive measures would be taken if attacked by royal troops; boycott of all British goods- stop exporting to British Empire; took control from royal customs officials; delegates summarized demands in letter addressed to King- parliament could regulate imperial trade but not impose taxes, enforce laws through admiralty courts, suspend assemblies, revoke charters; king should dismiss administrators in charge of enforcing coercive acts


militia that could respond quicly to an emergency

Lexington and Concord

British Army marched to Concord to seize weapons that were stashed there- skirmish with American minutemen- British gained some respect for american bravery

Paul Revere

he and other riders warned people of concord about approaching british attack

Second Continntal Congress

1175- most delagte still oppsed to independence

Olive Branch Petition

polite message to King- colonist confirmed they were still loyal; demanded cease fire in Boston, repeal of coercive acts, and negotiations to establish guarantees of American rights; shortly after- colonies declared in state of rebellion

Common Sense

written by Thoman Paine- 1776- turned colonists agisnt king- said the conspiracy against colonist was rooted in the monarchy; america had no economic need for British connection; removed last psychological barrier to rebellion

Declaration of Independence

1776 Drafted by Committee of 5 men including- John Adams, Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson (main writer); based on British Bill of rights- directed toward king; 27 reason why colonies are in rebellion

John Adams

belived in inevitablity of seperation but wanted reconclitaion b/c he thought revolution would threaten elite rule and social order; part of committee of 5 men that drafted Dec. of Independence, part of Peace negotiations in Paris after Revolution; served as attorney for soldiers after the Boston massacre;

Fort Duquesne-

French Fort during French and Indian War- taken by british in 1758 after they signed a treaty with Native Amercans so that they would stop fighting for the french- turning point of the war

Fort Necessity

British Fort established by wahsington near Fort Duquesne- captured by French in 1754

James Wolfe

general who defeated Montcalm on Plains of Abraham in Sept 1759- died in battle-

Louis Jospeh Montcalm

commander- in chief of french army during F&I War- defeated by Wolfe in Plains of Abraham- died in battle

Battle of Quebec

aka Battle of the Plains of Abraham- b/w Wolfe and Montcalm- British victory- beginning of the end for French forces

John Hancock

prominent anti- british merchant, born into wealth; seizure of his ship by GB officiial caused violent public outcry- mob assalted customs officials- Am Board of Customs charged him with smuggling- charges later dropped

spinning bees

large gatehrings of women spinning their own cloths; colonial women's response to leaders' pleas for the expansion of domestic cloth production; included women of all social rank

Henry Knox

Northern general whose troops who dragged cannons captured at for Ticonderoga all the way to boston- forced british to flee boston- Washington was impressed




colonists who wanted independence

George Washington

Commamder of Continental Army- a lot of military experience, led by example, treated soldiers with respect, sat in both Continental Congresses

Battle of Trenton and Princeton

washington takes offenseive and wins against British- boosts morale and cuts off loyalist in NJ form British Army- many loyalists fled

Marquis de Lafayette

young frenchamn that served in Army under Washington


trunign poitn of war in North- after this- France officially recognized America as a nation and provided troops, support, money. General Horatio Gates defeated General John Burgoyne

General William Howe and Admiral Richard Howe

commanders of British Army in New England- conquered New York together- General Howe defeated Wahsington at Brandywine- allowed British to winter comfortably in Philly while Colonist froze at Valley forge

Friedrich von Steban

German officer- came to America to train the inexperienced troops to fight better- liked the American men- inspired them; turned them in to formidable fighting force- British never again win easily

George Rogers Clark

-Captured British occupied french community of VIncenne for good in 1779; as a result: British troops unable to provide assitence ot Native American Allies- colonists destroyed shawnee villages

Joseph Brant

Mohawk leader- foough against colonists; attacked militias in PA and NY; masked the fact that the Iroquois were a dying nation, monor celebrity in England, did not get support of other tribes

Horatio Gates

won battle of Saratoga; later took control of Southern army- flees during battle- replaced by Nathanial Greene

Seige of Yorktown

Cornwallis forced to flee ot Yorktown by Greene- Greene inflicted more casualties than Cornwallis could afford- Seige lasted for 3 weeks- Cornwallis surrenderred in 1781- Surrender cause people in GB to lose support for war- led to peace treaty

Peace of Paris

aka Traty of Paris- 1783. John Adams, Franklin, and JOhn JAy are America's diplomats; GB recognizes American independence; America gets all lanf east of Mississippi; fishing rights in Canada; no reference to N.A.

natural aristocracy

people who were fit for politcal office because of personal accomplishments (included low born and high born)

Benjamin Banneker

black self taught mathematician and surveyor; laid out lan for Washington D.C.; did not like the T.J. continued to believe in black inferiorty even though he wrote about "equality for all" in the Declaration

Phyllis Wheatley

black slave in New England- published poetry and became rather famous, she was freed, but she died poor

Abigail Adams

Wife of John Adams- political commentator and his confidante; no public role; reminded her husband to include rights for women while making the new government

Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom

Written by Thomas Jefferson in 1786; ended state established church in VA- influenced other states

Articles of Confederation

this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage


Paper bills issued by the Continental Congress to finance the revolution; supposed to be exchanged for silver but the overprinting of bills made them basically worthless.

Ordinance of 1785

congress established uniform procedures for surveying the land; every township included a school

NW ordinance of 1787

congress defined steps for creation and admission of new states; also designated NW territory, said states would be created later, and prohibited slavery in that area
1. territorial government and judges set up by congress druing initial settlement
2. 5000 males- voter approve temp. constiturion and elect legislature to pass laws
3. total pop of 60,000 voters ratify a state constitution to be approved by congress
EFFECT: served as model for laying out territory in the future
could not be carried out right away becuase of resistance by native americans

Jay- Gardoqui Treaty

John Jay went to Spain to negotiate the use of the port of New Orleans to Americans; What he got: opened up valuable spanish markets to eastern merchants; spain renounced disputed land in SW; what he lost: american relinquished rights to New Orleans for 20 years; southerers and westerners angry- thought it only benefitted north- congress rejected treaty

Shay's Rebellion

Led by Daniel Shay, a former Revolutionary War officer; Occurred in the winter of 1786-7. Poor, indebted landowners angry about additional taxes in Massachusetts blocked access to courts and prevented the government from arresting or repossessing the property of those in debt. The federal government was too weak to help Boston remove the rebels, a sign that the Articles of Confederation weren't working effectively.

Virginia Plan

The Virginia Plan was presented to the Constitutional Convention by James Madison and proposed the creation of a storng central government with a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population. The Virginia Plan favored the large states, which would have a much greater voice.

New Jersey Plan

New Jersey delegate William Paterson's plan of government, in which states got an equal number of representatives in Congress; unicameral congress; wanted a stonger central government

Connecticut Compromise

Compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators

Checks and Balances

A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power

Seperation of Powers

dividing the powers of government among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches


shared power and dual lawmaking between national and state governments


those who supported the constitution, name implied that the document would balance power between states and national government; newpapers were pro-federalist- very good campaign, included many of the most prominent men of the day. ex George Washington, Ben Franklin


those opposed to contistution, leaders not as well known, respected, lacked experience on a national level; Included George Mason (b/c there was no BIll of Rights) and Patrick Henry;

The Federalist Papers

written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay; articulated arguments for Constitution- adressed concerns about the powers and limits of new government; published in newspaper in NY

sons of liberty

A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.