Prentice Hall US History Vocab Ch. 7, 8, and 9

Seneca Falls Convention

(1848) the first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written.

Amelia Bloomer

An American women's rights and temperance advocate. She presented her views in her own monthly paper, The Lily, which she began publishing in 1849. When Amelia was 22, she married a lawyer by the name of Dexter Bloomer. One of the major causes promoted by Amelia was a change in dress standards for women so that they would be less restrictive.


Means "the right to vote.

Married Women's Property Act

(1848) law that permitted married women to own property, file lawsuits, and retain earnings; major victory for the early women's right movement

Junipero Serra

Franciscan priest from Spain who founded a total of nine missions in California between 1776 and 1782, including the first mission at San Diego de Alcala in 1769.


A small yet vocal and influential group of public officials that embraced the idea of overseas possessions, regardless of the implications., People who wanted to expand or enlarge the territory of the USA- USA should reach from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean: believed in Manifest Destiny.

Manifest Destiny

A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.

Santa Fe Trail

A trail that extends from Missouri to New Mexico (Americans trade with Mexicans).

Mountain Men

American trappers who explored the Rocky Mountains area in the early 1800s, led to the California trail.

Oregon Trail

2,000 mile-long whiche stretched from places such as Independence, Missouri, or Council Bluffs, Iowa, west into Oregon Country

Brigham Young

A Mormon leader who urged the Mormons to move farther west. They settled at the edge of the lonely desert near the Great Salt Lake.

Treaty of Fort Laramie

A treaty agreed upon, where the Sioux agreed to live on a reservation along the Mississippi River.

Stephen F. Austin

(1793-1836) In 1822, Austin founded the first settlement of Americans in Texas. In 1833 he was sent by the colonists to negotiate with the Mexican government for Texan indedendence and was imprisoned in Mexico until 1835, when he returned to Texas and became the commander of the settlers' army in the Texas Revolution.

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876).

Lone Star Republic

Name of Texas before annexed to the United States when Texas was its own country.


A Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force.

Sam Houston

A Tennessee lawyer, congressman, and governor who became the leader of the Texan rebels. He was also elected into the Senate and the governorship of Texas. It is due to this man that Texas is part of the United Sates today. His capture of Santa Anna forced Santa Anna to give up the land and sign a treaty stating that the Rio Grande was the southernmost border of the now American Texas.

James K. Polk

(1845-1849) The Mexican War starts in 1846. The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ends the war in 1848. Wanted to settle Oregon boundary dispute with Great Britain. Wanted to acquire California and to incorporate Texas into union, while reducing the tariff and re-establish an independent treasury system.

Zachary Taylor

(1849-1850), Whig president who was a Southern slave holder, and war hero (Mexican-American War). Won the 1848 election. Surprisingly did not address the issue of slavery at all on his platform. He died during his term and his Vice President was Millard Fillmore.

Winfield Scott

General in the Mexican-War; " Old Fuss and Feathers" ; succeeded in battling his way up to Mexico City by 1847.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

(1848) treaty signed by the U.S. and Mexico that officially ended the Mexican-American War; Mexico had to give up much of its northern territory to the U.S (Mexican Cession); in exchange the U.S. gave Mexico $15 million and said that Mexicans living in the lands of the Mexican Cession would be protected.

Gadsden Purchase

(1853) U.S. purchase of land from Mexico that included the southern parts of present-day Arizona and New Mexico; set the current borders of the contiguous United States (the U.S. states, minus Hawaii, Alaska, and commonwealth of Puerto Rico).

Wilmot Proviso

1846 proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with Mexico.

California Gold Rush

1848 gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill, in Coloma, California. News of the discovery soon spread, resulting in some 300,000 men, women, and children coming to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. These early gold-seekers, called "forty-niners," traveled to California by sailing boat and in covered wagons across the continent, often facing substantial hardships on the trip. San Francisco grew from a small settlement to a boomtown, and roads, churches, schools and other towns were built throughout California. A system of laws and a government were created, leading to the admission of California as a state in 1850.


People who went to California looking for Gold (They left in 1849).

placer mining

A technique of mining where miners would shovel loose dirt into boxes and then run water over the dirt to separate it from gold or silver particles.

hydraulic mining

Mining done by running water over hills to expose gold.


(from 16th to 19th centuries) gates set across a road to prevent passage until a toll had been paid

National Road

A federal funded road stretching from Maryland to Illinois.

Erie Canal

A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.

Industrial Revolution

A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.

Samuel Slater

(1768-1835) English industrialist who brought a design for a textile mill to America, he is considered the founder of the American cotton industry.

Francis Cabot Lowell

Boston merchant who had an idea to combine spinning and weaving under one roof. He formed the Boston Associates. They built a textile mill in Massachusetts. Had all machines needed to turn raw cotton into cloth.

Lowell girl

Young, single women from New England farms that had experience for the textile industry and were cheaper to hire than males. Lived in company-owned boardinghouses where older women acted as chaperones.

interchangeable parts

1799-1800 - Eli Whitney developed a manufacturing system which uses standardized parts which are all identical and thus, interchangeable. Before this, each part of a given device had been designed only for that one device; if a single piece of the device broke, it was difficult or impossible to replace. With standardized parts, it was easy to get a replacement part from the manufacturer. Whitney first put used standardized parts to make muskets for the U.S. government.

Eli Whitney

An American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged.

Samuel F. B. Morse

(1791-1872) American artist and inventor, he applied scientists' discoveries of electricity and magnetism to develop the telegraph, which soon sent messages all across the country.

Tariff of 1816

This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.


An economic system based on private property and free enterprise.

labor union

An organization of workers that tries to improve working conditions, wages, and benefits for its members


A person who favors those born in his country and is opposed to immigrants.

cotton gin

A machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793


A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country.

Henry Clay

A northern American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises. One of the leading advocates of industry-favoring economic nationalism.

American System

Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.

John Quincey Adams

was in power 1810-1825; he forcibly informed Spain of their violation of the Appoint-American Treaty of 1795. This led to the ceding of Florida to the U.S. He was also responsible for keeping the U.S. from signing the Canning Proposal, which would have hindered American expansion. He then drafted the Monroe Doctrine which established the U.S. as the protector of the Western Hemisphere.

Adams-Onis Treaty

(1819) Spain ceded Florida to the United States and gave up its claims to the Oregon Territory.

Monroe Doctrine

(1823) A political policy of the United States by President James Monroe that states the Western Hemisphere is closed to European interference.

Missouri Compromise

Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.


A meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform.

Andrew Jackson

(1829-1833) and (1833-1837), Indian removal act, nullification crisis, Old Hickory," first southern/ western president," President for the common man," pet banks, spoils system, specie circular, trail of tears, Henry Clay Flectural Process.

Martin Von Buren

Supported Jackson. Traveled around the country drumming up votes for him.

Jacksonian Democracy

A policy of spreading more political power to more people. It was a "Common Man" theme.

spoils system

A system of government employment in which workers are hired on the basis of party loyalty.

Indian Removal Act

(1830) Signed by President Andrew Jackson, the law permitted the negotiation of treaties to obtain the Indians' lands in exchange for their relocation to what would become Oklahoma.

Trail of Tears

(AJ) , The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.

Tariff of Abominations

1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.

John C. Calhoun

South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification., 7th Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century; was an advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification.


The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.


Anti-Jackson political party that generally stood for national community and an activist government.

Second Great Awakening

A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.


Preachers that thought that Americans had become immoral and because they wanted to re-energize the role of religion in America.

Charles Grandison Finney

An evangelist who was one of the greatest preachers of all time (spoke in New York City). He also made the "anxious bench" for sinners to pray and was was against slavery and alcohol.


Focusing on emotionally powerful preaching, rather than formal ceremonies, and on the teachings of the Bible.

Joseph Smith

Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.


Church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT.


Christian doctrine that stresses individual freedom of belief and rejects the Trinity

utopian community

An experimental community designed to be a perfect society, in which its members could live together in harmony.


A movement which placed emphasis on life, and transcending form animal or worldly impulses to more spiritual impulses.

Ralph Waldo Emerson

American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.

Henry David Thoreau

American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.

public school movement

The reforms of this movement included compulsory attendance for all kids, a longer school year, and increased teacher preparation.

Horace Mann

(AJ) , late 1830s, MA, United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)

Dorothea Dix

A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.

penitentiary movement

prison reform movement. main idea that prison should make criminals feel penitence or sorrow for their crimes. Two types: Pennsylvania System: urged to repent while in solitary confinement. Auburn System: Prisoners worked in silence and slept alone.

temperance movement

A campaign to stop the drinking of alcohol.

Neal Dow

Nineteenth century temperance activist, dubbed the "Father of Prohibition" for his sponsorship of the Maine Law of 1851, which prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol in the state.

Nat Turner

(1800-1831) American slave leader, he claimed that divine inspiration had led him to end the slavery system. Called Nat Turner's Rebellion, the slave revolt was the most violent one in U.S. history; he was tried, convicted, and executed.

abolition movement

Movement led by Fredrick Douglass and others to end slavery.

William Lloyd Garrison

1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.

Fredrick Douglass

American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published the autobiography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.

Gag Rule

1835 law passed by Southern congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in Congress


Based on or tracing the family through the mother.

Sojourner Truth

American abolitionist and feminist. Born into slavery, she escaped in 1827 and became a leading preacher against slavery and for the rights of women., United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)

women's movement

1960s to present. argued that the traditional family form is oppressive for women and children. takes away womens independence and that we need to start looking at families differently.

Lucretia Mott

A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's rights convention in New York in 1848

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.