Chapters 9-11

Society of Cincinatti

Exclusive hereditary order created by Continental army officers.

Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom

1786- Religion should not be imposed on anybody, created by Thomas Jefferson

First anti-slavery society

Quakers in 1775

Abolition of Slave Trade

Called for in 1st continental congress, Northern states did and went further- abolition of slavery, emancipation of slaves. No southern states did (South of Pennsylvania)

Second Continental Congress

Called upon the colonies in 1776 to draft new constitutions. Massachusetts called a special convention to draft its constitution and then submitted the final draft to the peoplw

State Constitutions

Written documents, intended to represent a fundamental law, superior to the short-lived impulses of ordinary legislation.

Economy after revolutionary war

Economic democracy
US had to make products, no longer receiving them from Britain
Many people poor, bad economy

Articles of Confederation

Drafted by second Continental Congress
Adopted by Congress 1777
Ratified by all colonies 1781

Two major Congress handicaps

1. Couldn't regulate commerce
2. Couldn't enforce tax program

Land Ordinance of 1785

Stated that the acreage of the Old Northwest should be sold and the proceeds should be used to help pay off the national debt.

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

A uniform national land policy; created the Northwest Territories and gave the land to the government, the land could then be purchased by individuals; when a territory had 60,000 people, it might be admitted by Congress as a state, with all the privilege

British/ American Relationship after war

Britain declined to make any commercial treaty with the colonies or to repeal its Navigation Laws.
Remained in the Americas where they maintained their fur trade with the Indians.
The American states did not honor the treaty of peace in regard to debts an

Lord Sheffield

Argued in his pamphlet that Britain could win back America's trade

Spanish/ American Relationship after war

Openly unfriendly to the Americans. It closed off the Mississippi river to commerce in 1784.

Shay's Rebellion

1786; Impoverished back-country farmers, who were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies, attempted to enforce their demands of cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of property takeovers
Led by Captain Daniel

Convention at Annapolis, MD

1786, Alexander Hamilton saved the convention from collapsing - delegates from only 5 states showed up. He called upon Congress to summon a convention to meet in Philadelphia the next year, not to deal with just commerce, but to fix then entire fabric of

Constitutional Convention

May 25, 1787, 55 representatives from all of the states except for Rhode Island were sent to Philadelphia to talk of the government in the future of the country. George Washington was elected as the leader.
Hoped to save the revolutionary idealism and mak

Virginia Plan

First pushed forward as the framework of the Constitution.
Said that the arrangement in Congress should be based upon a state's population

New Jersey Plan

Equal representation in Congress without regards to a state's size or population

Great Compromise

Representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation in the Senate. Each state would have 2 senators

Three-fifths compromise

Agreement that each slave counted as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in the House for representation and taxation purposes (negated by the 13th amendment)

Trade in Constitution

Constitution called for the end of the slave trade by the end of 1807.
All State Constitutions except Georgia forbade overseas trade.

Agreement in Constitutional Convention

Economically- sound money and the protection of private property
Politically- stronger government with 3 branches and with checks and balances


Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee. The followers consisted of states' rights devotees, back country dwellers, and one-horse farmers - in general, the poorest class.


George Washington and Benjamin Franklin. Most of the Federalists lived in the settled areas along the seaboard. Overall, they were wealthier than the Anti-federalists, more educated, and better organized. They also controlled the press.

Four Laggard States

Virginia, New York, and North Carolina all ratified the Constitution before it was put into effect
Rhode Island was the last state to ratify it and it did so only after the new government had been in operation for a few months
Only ratified because they c

George Washington as President

Unanimously elected as President by the Electoral College in 1789. He took the oath of office on April 30, 1789. He established the cabinet.

Bill of Rights

James Madison wrote the Bill of Rights and got them passed by Congress in 1791
Added to get anti-federalists to ratify Constitution

Judiciary Act of 1789

created the Supreme Court, with a chief justice and five associates, as well as federal district and circuit courts, and established the office of attorney general.
John Jay became the first Chief Justice.

Hamilton's Financial Plan

Favor the wealthier groups who would lend their money and political support to the government
federal government would pay off its debts at face value plus accumulated interest (public confidence in Treasury)
Congress take on the states' debts (state conf

Hamilton's Deal with Virginia

Passed by Congress in 1790. Virginia did not want the government to assume state debts. Virginia wanted the DC, which would bring commerce and prestige. Made a deal: The government would assume state debts if the District of Columbia was placed on the Pot

Hamilton's View on National Debt

Keep a national debt, more creditors to whom the government owed money, more people there would be with a personal stake in the success of the government.
In this objective, he expected tariff revenues to pay interest on the huge debt and run the governme

Hamilton's Tariffs

1789- tax of 8% on the value of imports,created revenue and to create a small protective wall around small industries
1791, convinced Congress to pass an excise tax on a few domestic items, notably whiskey.

Bank of the United States

Print paper money and thus provide a stable national currency. Place where the Treasury could deposit monies.
Thomas Jefferson- Bank is unconstitutional, states had the right to manage their own money
Hamilton prevailed and the 1st Bank of the United Stat

Whiskey Rebellion

Pennsylvania in 1794
Lead by distillers who strongly opposed the 1791 excise tax on whiskey.
The rebellion was ended when President Washington sent in federal troops- faced no opposition buy, a strong message was sent by the government stating that it wou

Emergence of Political Parties/ Two Party System

had not existed in America when George Washington took office
feud between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton had developed into a full-blown and bitter political rivalry.
In the 1790s, Jefferson and Madison organized their opposition to the Hamilton

French Revolution

1789, began peacefully but entered a violent phase when France declared war on Austria in 1792, when King Louis XVI was beheaded in 1793, the church was attacked, and the head-rolling Reign of Terror was begun.
At first, the Federalists supported the revo

Neutrality Proclamation of 1793

Country's neutrality from the Britain-France war
backed by Hamilton
Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans wanted to fight for France

Miami Confederacy

alliance of 8 Indian nations who terrorized Americans.
British agents openly sold firearms to them

British on US soil

in defiance of the peace treaty of 1783
Jeffersonians felt that American should again fight Britain in defense of America's liberties
Federalists opposed this action because Hamilton's hopes for economic development depended on trade with Britain

Jay's Treaty

1794, Opposed by Democratic-Republicans, British promised to evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay for damages for the seizures of American ships. but did not pledge anything about future maritime seizures or about supplying arms to Indians. Th

Pinckney's Treaty of 1795

Spain worried about Anglo-American alliance
Granted the Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River and the large disputed territory north of Florida.

John Adams

Second President- Fedealist
Under Hamilton- who became leader of Federalist party
Beat Thomas Jefferson

XYZ Affair

John Marshall to France to negotiate
Hoping the meet Talleyrand, the French foreign minister, Adams's envoy was secretly approached by 3 go-betweens, later referred to as X, Y, and Z demanded a bribe of $250,000 just to talk to Talleyrand
Marshall and the

Effect of XYZ affair

America began preparations for war: the Navy Department was created; the three-ship navy was expanded; the United States Marine Corps was reestablished.

Convention of 1800

Napoleon Bonaparte signed with American representative John Jay Annulled the alliance between France and America and called for France to return captured American ships and for the U.S. to pay the damage claims of American shippers

Alien Laws

Raised the residence requirements for aliens who desired to become citizens from 5 years to 14 years. They also stated that the President could deport or jail foreigners in times of peace or hostilities.
To silence the Jeffersonians

Sedition Act

anyone who impeded the policies of the government or falsely defamed its officials would be liable to a heavy fine and imprisonment
To silence the Jeffersonian Republicans

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

Jefferson's Kentucky resolution and Madison's Virginia resolution-states had the right to refuse laws created by the government.
Virtually no other state followed the two states' resolutions.

Federalists versus Democratic-Republicans

Federalists supported a strong central government; they believed that the government should support private enterprise, not interfere with it; and they supported the British.
Jeffersonian anti-Federalists demanded a weak central government and supported s

First Whispering Campaigns

Thomas Jefferson became the victim of one of America's first whispering campaigns.
The Federalists accused him of having an affair with one of his slaves.

Election of 1800

Thomas Jefferson beat John Adams

Naturalization Law of 1802

Thomas Jefferson's Law
Reduced the requirement of 14 years of residence to the previous 5 years

Jefferson's First Actions as President

Pardoned the prisoners of the Sedition Acts, the Naturalization Law of 1802, did away with the excise tax.

Albert Gallatin

Secretary of Treasury to Jefferson; believed that a national debt wasn't a blessing; he reduced the national debt with a strict economy

Judiciary Act of 1801

Passed by the expiring Federalist Congress; created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices.
The new Republican-Democratic Congress quickly repealed the act and kicked out the 16 newly seated judges.
One Federalist judge, Chief Justice John M

Marbury vs. Madison

1803- showed that the Supreme Court had the final authority in determining the meaning of the Constitution

Samuel Chase

Supreme court justice the Democratic-Republican Congress tried to remove in retaliation of the John Marshall's decision regarding Marbury; was not removed due to a lack of votes in the Senate.

Jefferson and the Military

preferred a smaller military

Tripoli Conflict

Leader of Tripoli informally declared war on the United States. Jefferson sent the new navy to Tripoli and after 4 years of fighting, a deal was reached. The U.S. paid Tripoli $60,000 for the release of captured Americans.

Compromise over Louisiana Territory

Napoleon Bonaparte convinced the king of Spain to give Louisiana land area to France in 1800.
Jefferson sent James Monroe to join Robert Livingston in Paris in 1803 to buy as much land as he could for $10 million

Napoleon Sold all of Louisiana

He failed in his efforts to re-conquer the island of Santo Domingo, for which Louisiana was to serve as a source of foodstuffs.
Britain controlled the seas, Napoleon didn't want Britain to take over Louisiana so he wanted the money from the Americans

Robert Livingston

Along with James Monroe, negotiated in Paris for the Louisiana land area; signed a treaty on April 30, 1803 ceding Louisiana to the United States for $15 million.
The Americans had signed 3 treaties and gotten much land to the west of the Mississippi. 820

Meriwether Lewis, and William Clark

explore the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase

Aaron Burr and Conspiracies

Jefferson's first-term vice president
After being dropped from Jefferson's cabinet, he joined a group of extremist Federalists who plotted the secession of New England and New York; Alexander Hamilton uncovered the plot. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel

General James Wilkinson

Corrupt military governor of Louisiana Territory; made an allegiance with Burr to separate the western part of the United States from the East and expand their new confederacy with invasions of Spanish-controlled Mexico and Florida; betrayed Burr when he

Orders in Council

Series issued in 1806
Closed the European ports under French control to foreign shipping
In retaliatio, The French ordered the seizure of all merchant ships that entered British ports.

Embargo Act

1807- banned the exportation of any goods to any countries
Planned to force France and England to respect America and its citizens
The embargo significantly hurt the profits of U.S. merchants and was consequently hated by Americans.

Non-Intercourse Act

1809- Replaced Embargo
Opened up trade to every country except France and Britain

Why Embargo Failed

Jefferson overestimated the dependence of the 2 countries on America's trade.
Britain was able to trade with the Latin American republics and France had enough land in Europe to support itself.

James Madison

Third President
March 4, 1809.

Macon's Bill No. 2

Reopened American trade with the entire world
Napoleon convinced James Madison to give Britain 3 months to lift its Orders in Council. Madison did, but Britain chose not to lift its Orders in Council, and Madison had to reenact the United States's trade e

Twelfth Congress

Met in 1811; the "war hawks" wanted to go to war with the British and wanted to eliminate the Indian threats to pioneers


Shawnee, along with his brother, unified many Indian tribes in a last ditch battle with the settlers; allied with the British


the Prophet"; Shawnee, along with his brother, unified many Indian tribes in a last ditch battle with the settlers; allied with the British

William Henry Harrison

Governor of the Indiana territory; defeated the Shawnee at the Battle of Tippecanoe

Madison's War

On June 1, 1812, Madison asked Congress to declare war on the British and it agreed

Democratic-Republicans on War

supported the war ("war hawks") felt that the country had to assert American rights to the world. They wanted to invade Canada, the Indians' stronghold, because the Indians were being armed by the British to attack the settlers

Federalists on War

opposed because they supported Britain

Chesapeake Incident (Leopard Affair)

British warship fires on American ship (18 injured 3 killed). Angers Americans greatly.
Leads to embargo act.