Freed blacks

were nearly unanimous in their desire for independence from white control

The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

officially ended slavery.

The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

granted "citizenship" to the freed men

The Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

declared that the right to vote could not be denied on account of race.

Which faction of the Republican Party wanted Reconstruction to punish the former Confederacy, disenfranchise large numbers of Southern whites, and confiscate the property of leading Confederates?


Which best describes Congressional reaction to the former Confederate states that had set up new governments under Andrew Johnson's "presidential Reconstruction"?

They refused to seat the senators and representatives from the states and set up a committee to investigate and advise on Reconstruction.

The "Black Codes" were a set of regulations established by

the Southern states to promote white supremacy and to control the economic and social activities of the freed men.

Which of the following, if any, was NOT a provision of the Congressional plan of Reconstruction enacted in early 1867?

declaring that each state must present a plan for distributing farm land to, or providing jobs for, the former slaves

Critics of native Southern whites who joined the Republican Party called them


Education in the South

reached over 10 percent of the school-age population of former slaves.

Which best describes the extent of "Negro rule" in the Southern states during Reconstruction?

African Americans played a significant political role in several states but never elected a governor or controlled a state legislature.

What institution was the key point of contact in the agricultural credit system for most Southern farmers, black and white, in the late nineteenth century?

Local country-store merchants

In the late nineteenth century, the agricultural credit system in the South encouraged farmers

to rely heavily on cash crops�especially cotton.

The election of 1868

saw Grant uncertain whether to run as the candidate for the Democrats or Republicans.

The greenback movement

introduced one of the most powerful political issues of the late nineteenth century.

Ulysses S. Grant's election as president was largely a result of his being

a triumphant commanding general of the Union army

Which of the following, if any, was NOT associated with the "Compromise of 1877"?

A) removal of the last federal troops from the South
B) increased federal aid for railroads and other internal improvements
C) appointment of a Southerner to the cabinet
D) making Rutherford B. Hayes president
E) All these answers are correct.

Which, of the following is NOT cited by the text as a reason that Reconstruction failed to accomplish more to promote racial equality in the United States?

fear that harsh action might lead to resumed military action by the Southern states, even though they had been defeated.

The "solid" South refers to the

the fact that the Democratic Party could count on the votes of the Southern states after Reconstruction.

In most states, the "Redeemers" or "Bourbons" were typically composed of

a newly emerging class of merchants, industrialists, railroad developers, and financiers.

Recent historians of Reconstruction

have argued that the blacks gained significant improvements through this era.

Henry W. Grady was

an Atlanta editor who became a leading spokesman for the "New South" idea.

In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the U.S. Supreme Court established the general principle that

states could require separate accommodations on trains, in schools, and the like, for blacks and whites as long as the accommodations were equal

Jim Crow" is a nickname for

the whole system of laws and customs that kept the races separate in schools, public buildings, houses, jobs, theaters and the like

Around the turn of the century, which of the following was most likely to attract Northern white support?

a federal anti-lynching law