Chapter 5: Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution, 1700-1775

The primary reason for the spectacular growth of America's population in the eighteenth century was

the natural fertility of the population

German settlement in the colonies was especially heavy in


The scots-irish eventually became concentrated especially in

the frontier areas

Compared with the seventeeth century, American colonial society in the eighteeth century showed

greater gaps in wealth and status between rich and poor

the most honored professsion in the colonial America was the


The primary source of livelihood for most colonial Americans was


Indians and African Americans shared in the common American experience of

creating new cultures and societies out of the mingling of diverse ethinc groups

An unfortunate group of involuntary immigrants who ranked even below indentured servants on the American social scare were

convicts and paupers

The "triangular trade" involved the sale of rum, molasses and slaves among the ports of

New England, Africa, and the West Indies

The passage of British restrictions on trade and encouraged colonial merchants to

find ways to smuggle and otherise evade the law by trading with other countries

Besides offering rest and refreshment, colonial taverns served an important fuction as centers of

news and political opinion

The Angelican church suffered in colonial America because of

its poorly qualified clergy and close ties with British authorities

The two denominations that enjoyed the status of "established" churches in vavrious colonies were the

Anglicans and Congregationalists

Among the many impostant results of the Great Awakening ws that it

broke down sectional boundaries and created a greater sense of common American identity

A primary weapon used by colonial legislatures in their conflicts with royal governors was

using their power of the purse to withhold the governor's salary


Corruption of a German word used as a term for German immigrants in Pennsylvania


Ethnic group that had already relocated once before immigrating to America and settling largely on the Western frontier of the middle and southern colonies


Rebellious movement of frontiersmen in the southern colonies that included future President Andrew Jackson

Jayle Birds

popular term for convicted criminals dumped on colonies by British authorities

Praying Towns

Term for New England settlements where Indians from various tribes were gathered to be Christianized


A once-despised profession

Triangular Trade

small but profitable trade route that linked New England, Africa and the West Indies


popular colonial centers of recreation, gossip and political debate


term for tax-supported condition of Congretional and Anglican churches, but not of Baptists, Quakers, and Roman Catholics.

Great Awakening

spectacular, emtional religious revival of the 1730's amd the 1740's

New Light

ministers who supported the Great Awakening against the "old light" clergy who rejected it


Institutions that were founded in greater numbers as a result of the Great Awkwaening, although a few had been founded earlier

The Zenger Case

The case that establishedthe precedent that true statements about the public officaials could not be prossecuted as libel


the upper house of a colonial legislature appointed by the crown or the proprietor

Richards Almanack

Benjamin Franklin's highly popular collection of information, parables and advice.

George Whitefield

Itinerant British evangelist who spread the Great Awakening throughout the colonies

John Peter Zenger

Colonial printer whose case helped begin freedom of the press

John singleton Copley

colonial painter who studied and worked in Britian


Leading city of the colonies; home of Benjamin Franklin

African Americans

Largest non-English group in the colonies


Dominant religious group in colonial Pennsylvania, critized by other for their attitude toward the Indians

Phillis Wheatley

Former slave who became a poet at an early age

Paxton Boys and Regulators

Scots-Irish frontiersmen who prostested against colonial elites of Pennsylvaniaand North Carolina

Molasses Act

Attempt by British authorities to squelch colonial trade with French West Indies

Jonathan Edwards

Brilliant New England theologian who instigated the Great Awakening


Group that settled the frontier, made whiskey, and hated the British and other governmental authorities


Nonestablished religious group that benefited from the Great Awakening

Benjamin Franklin

Author, scienists, printer, "the first civilized American

Patrick Henry

Eloquent lawyer-rator who argued in defense of colonial rights

Anglican Church

Established religion in southern colonies and New York; weakened by lackadaisical clergy and too-close ties with British crown.

The appointment of unpopular or incompetent royal governors to colonies

promited colonial assemblies to withhold royal governors' salaries

dry over-intellectualism and loss of religious commitment

created the conditions for the Great awakening to erupt in the early eighteenth century

The heavy immigration of Germans, Scots-Irish, Africans, and others into the colonies

resulted in the development of a colonial "melting pot" only one-half English by 1775

American merchants search for non-british markets

Was met by British attempts to restrict colonial trade, eg, the Molasses Act

The large profits made by merchants as military suppliers for imperial wars

Increased the wealth of the eighteenth century colonial elite

The high natural fertility of the colonial population

Led to the increase of American population to one-third of England's in 1775

the lack of artistic concerns, cultural tradtion, and leisure in the colonies

Forced the migration of colonial artists to Britian to study and persue artisitic careers

The Zenger case

Marked the beginnings of freedom of printed political expression in the colonies

Upper-class fear of "democratic excesses" by poor whites

Reinforced colonial property qualifications for voting

The Great Awakening

Stimulated a fervent, emotional style of religion, denominational divisions, and a greater sense of inter-colonial American identity