Chapter 6

(146.) Battle of Fallen Timbers/Treaty of Greenville

The Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) was the final clash between Native Americans and the United States. Lead by General Anthony Wayne, 4,000 American soldiers fought against tribes such as the Shawnees, Potawatomis, and Ojibwas, all lead by the chief,

147. Framers / Founding Fathers / Demigods

The Founding Fathers were a group of 55 men that convened at the Philadelphia State House in 1787; they were headed by Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, George Washington, and Thomas Jefferson. Their main purpose was to modify the current constitution

(148.) Annapolis Convention (1786)

ID: A meeting at Annapolis, Maryland of 12 delegates from five states (New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia) which called for a constitutional convention to fix the defects of the federal government that limited trade/commerce betwee

(149.) Newburgh Conspiracy (1783)

The Newburgh Conspiracy was a plot hatched in 1783 near the end of the American Revolutionary War resulting from the fact that many of the officers and men of the Continental Army had not received pay for many years. They organized under the leadershi

(150.) Virginia Plan vs. New Jersey Plan

The Virgina Plan, proposed by Edmund Randolph, consisted of a national government, made up of three supreme branches: the Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary, and also for a new national legislature consisting of two houses, the lower and power hous

(151.) Great Compromise a.k.a Connecticut Compromise + Three-Fifths Compromise

During the Constitutional Convention, the issue of representation in Congress arose. After a long period of bickering, the participants agreed on the Great Compromise, which stated that representation in the lower house was based on population, on Jul

(152.) Bicameral VS. Unicameral

ID: A Bicameral legislature is one that has NOT one but TWO legislative houses consisting of the upper house or "Senate" and the lower house or the "House of Representatives" . A Unicameral legislature, on the other hand, only has one legislative house.

(153.) Checks and Balences

The Checks and Balances system was implemented to separate the powers of the central government. Under this, the United States government was split into 3 branches, the Legislative, Judicial, and the Executive. Each branch contained different powers a

(154.) Bill of Rights

ID: The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments in the US Constitution. Written in 1789 and ratified on 1791, the Bill of Rights outlines the American Citizen's basic rights and are a key law to American law and government.
The Ten Amendm

(155.) Federalists vs. Anti-federalists

ID: After the Constitution was written in 1787 there was debate between those who support and opposed it. Federalists were supporters of the Constitution, among who included A. Hamilton, John Jay, & James Madison (the three who penned the Federalist Paper

(156.). Federalist Papers

ID: Papers that were written by Federalist, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison. These papers were meant to explain the benefits and meaning of the Constitution, and convince people to support. Federalist feared if they did not defend or advoc

(157.)The Electoral College

157)Electoral College
identification: The electoral college is a set of people elected from each state elected from the people to choose the next president. The amount of electors from each state is determined by the number of representatives in the House

(158.) Strict construction vs. Loose construction

ID: Strict constructionism is a judiciary interpretation practice; it is basically the reading and understanding of a law or legislative text exactly as it is and for what it is. It is generally considered a conservative practice as opposed to loose const

(159.) The Cabinet (in general)

ID:A Cabinet is a body of high ranking members of the government, they always represent the executive branch and are the president's advisors. The positions consist of the Vice President and the heads of 15 executive departments which is made up of the Se

(160.) Funding at Par

I.D. Funding At Par:
Funding at Par means that the government would pay off its debt at face value plus accumulated interest. This method was set before congress by Alexander Hamiliton, a financial genius under George Washington. However, many people did

(161.) Assumption

ID: Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of the Treasury, proposed to have the federal government assume stated debts from the Revolution. Hamilton's proposal was criticized by many, including Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Hamilton got the plan t

(162.) Excise Tax

An excise tax is a tax on a good or service that is usually based on the amount of business done. It is an indirect tax which means that the consumer does not directly pay for it. They just see the price of the product go up. During the Federalist era

(163.) Bank of the United States

ID: Bank of the United States was a national bank which was proposed by Alexander Hamilton. Established in 1791, the bank served as a stable place for the United States government to place it's money. It also gave out bonds to the better well off who were

(164.) the Whiskey Rebellion

Whiskey Rebellion
ID: In 1794, a group of Pennsylvania farmers protested against a federal whiskey excise tax by terrorizing tax collectors. Alexander Hamilton quelled the rebellion by ordering George Washington to personally lead a 15,000-man militia to

(165.) Federalists vs. Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans

By the late 1780s, two different political parties started emerging. One, was the Federalist Party which was led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The other, was the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans which was led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madis

(166.) French Revolution

ID: During Washington's first term as president (1789-1793) the French Revolution (battle between the new French republic and the European monarchs) had just began. The Republicans supported the French Revolution while the Federalists were horrified with

(167.) Washington's Neutrality Proclamation

ID: Washington adopted an proclamation of neutrality in 1793 in order to maintain the stability of the new country. He did not want America to become mixed up in foreign affairs because he felt that this carried the prospect of tearing the new nation to s

(168.) Jay's Treaty

Who: John Jay, chief justice of the US Supreme Court and a staunch New York Federalist
What: a treaty between Britain and the U.S with certain demands
When: 1794
Why: to secure compensation for recent British attacks on American shipping, to demand Br

(169.) Washington's Farewell Address

- On September 19, 1796, an address written by George Washington was published in the American Daily Advertiser.
- Though it wasn't delivered orally, many Americans read pamphlets and newspapers containing the address.
Washington's farew

(170.) X, Y, Z Affair

The X, Y, Z affair was the major spark that caused the Quasi War. A bipartisan group of three American diplomats, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, John Marshall and Elbridge Gerry went to France to stabilize relations between the two countries. They were

(171.) Quasi War (w/France)

The Quasi War with France was an undeclared war with France that ended peacefully due to a treaty with the United States that canceled the old agreement of 1778 and established new commercial arrangements.
Historical Significance:
The United States be

(172.) Citizen Genet

ID: Edmond Genet, known as "Citizen Genet," was a diplomatic representative of France. Genet landed on the port of Charleston at the time the new French government was in a war against Great Britain and its allies in 1793. Genet did not immediately presen

(173.) John Adams (summary as president)

(October 30, 1735 - July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat and political theorist. A leading champion of independence in 1776, he was the second President of the United States (1797-1801). He played a leading role in persuading Congress to

(174.) Alien and Sedition Acts:

In 1798, the Alien and Sedition Acts were both enacted following the end of the quasi war with France. The Alien Act placed new obstacles in the way of foreigners trying to become American citizens, while at the same time it gave the President more po

(175.) The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

These were two resolutions (each in their respective state) that countered the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were created by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, respectively, and argued that the federal got its power f

(176.) Compact Theory + Nullification

ID: John Locke defined the Compact Theory as an agreement between all the states to give some power to the central government. Nullification is a state's ability to declare an action of the central government unconstitutional and thus void it to protect i

(177.) Pinckney's Treaty

Pinckney's Treaty is also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo or Treaty of Madrid and established the intentions of friendship between the US and Spain. It allowed US to navigate the Mississippi River and likewise set the boundaries between the Spanish

(178.) Convention of 1800

The convention of 1800 was a meeting between French and American delegates to end the Quasi War with France. The meeting was also known as the Treaty of Mortefontaine.
The treaty shows how America did not want to be drawn into

(179.) "Revolution" of 1800

The Revolution of 1800 was the battle between Jefferson and Adams for the presidency, with Adams representing the Federalists and Jefferson representing the Republicans. More specifically, the followers of each party "fought" against one another, spre

(180.) Judiciary Act of 1789

Adopted during the first session of Congress, the purpose of the Judiciary Act was to establish U.S. federal judiciary. It vested the power of the United States into one supreme court and spread that power down into minor courts approved by the United

181. The Judiciary Act of 1801 / Midnight Judges

ID: The Judiciary Act of 1801 was an act passed by the Adams Administration. This act allowed for the appointment of more federalists to newly created positions in the Supreme Court. Since Adams was reported to have stayed up until midnight signing these