Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parl
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
those living in the U.S. who were still loyal or in favor of Great Britain, and who supported the king. NY, NJ, GA; later went to Canada, were wealthy and conservative (governmentt officials or Anglican clergymen); Native Americans
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control
Battle of Bunker Hill
A battle that took place on the strategic point of Breed's Hill. British victory on account of the depletion of American supplies. Yet, it ended up giving America confidence and it pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.
He was a successful general in the Continental Army who won key victories for the colonies. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West
German mercenaries that were hired by the British for putting down the rebellion of the colonies. The hiring of these men showed to the colonists that the British had only military action in mind as a solution to the current problems.
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that t
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Von Steuben comes and trains troops
A powerful alliance of Indian tribes that was the only one to remain neutral during the French and Indian War (Seven years' war). The tribe had previously been subject of a peace treaty with the British and were noted as one of three powers of North Ameri
Battle of Yorktown
The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The French helped us. The was over, and colonists had won!
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
Idea of Convention
The idea of coming together as colonies to make decisions as a whole, instead of all self governing
Land Ordinance of 1784
Purpose was to raise money through the sale of land in the largely unmapped territory west of the original colonies acquired from Britain at the end of the Revolutionary War.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
Battle of Fallen Timbers
The U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River
Treaty of Greenville
This treaty between the Americans and the Native Americans. In exchange for some goods, the Indians gave the United States territory in Ohio. Anthony Wayne was the American representative.
A rebellion by debtor farmers in western Massachusetts, led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays, against Boston creditors. it began in 1786 and lasted half a year, threatening the economic interests of the business elite and contributing to the demi
Society of Cincinnati
Group of Continental Army officers formed a military order in1783. They were criticized for their aristocratic ideals.
emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. He spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creat
Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812
In 1785 a meeting of representatives of Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware was held at George Washington's residence, Mt. Vernon, for the purpose of discussing current problems of interstate commerce. At their suggestion, the Virginia legislat
A strong national legislature with two chambers, the lower chamber to be chose by the people and the upper chamber to be chose by the lower. A strong national executive to be chose by the legislature, and a national judiciary to be chose by legislature.
New Jersey Plan
A plan, unsuccessfully proposed at the Constitutional Convention, providing for a single legislative house with equal representation for each state
The Great Compromise
A state's representation in the House of Representation would be based on population; Two senators for each state; all bills would originate in the house; direct taxes on states were to be assessed according to population
A compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment
Checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Separation of powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
The federal government of the United States is the central government entity established by the United States Constitution, which shares sovereignty over the United States of America with the governments of the individual U.S. states
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Quasi War with France
Adams was angry as a result of XYZ affair a trade was cutt off with French treaties of 1778 were repudited and impressment of French sailors was ordered; 1798 - Navy was being funded - captured 35 French ships; Britain - ally; Finally France reconciled an
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the pres
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
wanted more centralization and were in favor of a stronger national government
The Federalist Papers
Series of newspaper articles written by John Jay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton which enumerated arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the arguments of the anti-federalists
Ratification of the U.S. Constitution. It was required that conventions of nine of the thirteen original States ratify the constitution. Once word was received that the ninth state had ratified the constitution - New Hampshire, June 21, 1788 - a timetable
Judiciary Act of 1789
Congress provided for a Supreme Court of six members and a system of lower district courts and courts of appeal, also giving the Supreme Court the power to make the final decisions in cases involving the constitution or state laws.
Funding the debt
Exchanges state debts and IOUs for National Government Act bonds. bonds have "maturity date". Interest on bonds will only be paid by government after maturity date. Therefore, they give national governemtn time and binds people to government
Assumption of state debts
Plan by Hamilton meant to tie the states more securely to fed gov; states pay debt, created huge national debt, assumption bill. logrolling - one support another
Bank of the United States
Hamilton's Bill created this national establishment which produced heated debates about whether national government had authority to create it since this establishment wasn't mention in the constitution.
Hamilton's bank bill
Officially proposed by Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, to the first session of the First Congress in 1790, the concept for the Bank had both its support and origin in and among Northern merchants and more than a few New England state govern
first party system
Since Federalists appeared to their critics to be creating such a menacing and tyrannical structure of power, a new, opposing political organization was created; Republican. They created vehicles of influence; forming committees, societies, and caucuses,
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, pu
Bill of Rights
A formal statement of the fundamental rights of the people of the United States, incorporated in the Constitution as Amendments 1-10, and in all state constitutions.
French ambassador in America, went around country trying to recruit Americans to fight for French without consent of American government --> kicked out for allowing French warship into Philadelphia, no longer French ambassador in America
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793, that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution, and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
Agreement between the United States and Spain that changed Floridas border and made it easier for american ships to use the port of new orleans
Revolution of 1800
Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic Republicans unseated the incumbent Federalist party. It was the first time in a western government where a change in the ruling power had occurred so radically, peacefully, and without bloodshed.
Served as the 3rd Vice President of the United States. Member of the Republicans and President of the Senate during his Vice Presidency. He was defamed by the press, often by writings of Hamilton. Challenged Hamilton to a duel in 1804 and killed him.
Midnight appointments (judges)
Adams signed the commissions for these Federal judges during his last night in office. Demonstrated the Federalists' last minute attempt to keep some power in the newly Republican Government.
argued that the constitution gave too much power to the national government at the expense of the state governments